Journal of African American Studies

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 309–335 | Cite as

Race, Gender and Progress: Are Black American Women the New Model Minority?

Articles

Abstract

Building on the “model minority” concept especially focusing on East and South Asian immigrants in the USA, this paper argues that increasing pertinent data continue to show that African American women are gradually becoming a model minority too, despite experiencing the most severe form of slavery, racism and gender discrimination than any other group or sub-group in the history of the USA. Among the increasing number of examples presented in this paper to support the claim that Black American women are becoming a model minority in the USA are: (1) relatively high college enrollment and degree attainment rates for black women; (2) fewer black females die per every 100,000 of their population than black males, white males and white females; (3) Higher proportion of black women are 100 years and over, compared to black males and whites; (4) Proportionally, fewer black females than black males, white males and white females commit suicide; (5) Proportionally, fewer black females than all males commit crimes; (6) Proportionally, due largely to black females, fewer blacks consume alcohol and illicit drugs than whites, etc.

Keywords

Black American women Model minority Progress Gender Educational success 

References

  1. Abbey, A., Jacques, A. J., Hayman, L. W. Jr., & Sobeck, J. (2006). Predictors of early substance use among African American and Caucasian Youth from urban and suburban communities. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 52(2), 305–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. An, S. (2007). Asian Americans in class: Charting the achievement gap among Korean American Youth (book review). Harvard Education Review, 77(2), 228–234.Google Scholar
  3. Asher, N. (2007). Made in the (multiculturalral) U.S.A.: Unpacking tensions of race, culture, gender, and sexuality in education. Educational Researcher, 36(2), 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berman, S. L., & Wittig, M. A. (2004). An intergroup theories approach to direct political action among African American. Group Process & Intergroup Relations, 7(1), 19–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bositis, D. A. (2003). Black elected officials: A statistical summary 2001. Joint Center for Politics and Economic Studies.1090 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 1100, Washington, DC 20005–4928. www.jointcenter.org.
  6. Bositis, D. A. (2005). November. “The black vote in 2004” Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. 1090 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 1100, Washington, DC 20005-4928. www.jointcenter.org.
  7. Brown, R. K. (2000). Political freedom and the widening of group consciousness among middle and lower class Black Americans. Perspectives, 6(1), 18–24.Google Scholar
  8. Chong, D., & Kim, D. (2006). The experiences and effects of economic status among racial and ethnic minorities. The American Political Science Review, 100(3), 335–351.Google Scholar
  9. Currence, P. L. J., & Johnson, W. E. (2003). The negative implications of incarceration on Black fathers. Perspectives, 9(1), 24–32.Google Scholar
  10. Dzokoto, V., Hicks, T., & Miller, E. (2007). Student lifestyles and emotional well-being at a historically black university. Education, 127(4), 511–522.Google Scholar
  11. Ernst, F. A., Hogan, B., Vallas, M. A., Cook, M., & Fuller, D. (2008). Superior self-regulatory skills in African American college students evidence from alcohol and tobacco use. Journal of Black Studies (in press) DOI  10.1177/0021934708315152.
  12. Hoffer, T. B., Hess, M., Welch, V. Jr., & Williams, K. (2006). Doctorate recipients from United States Universities: Summary report 2002. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center.Google Scholar
  13. Hoffer, T. B., Sederstrom, S., Selfa, L., Welch, V., Hess, M., Brown, S., et al. (2003). Doctorate recipients from United States Universities: Summary report 2002. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center.Google Scholar
  14. Jackson, A. P. (1997). Effects of maternal employment on single black mothers and their young children: A longitudinal study of current and former welfare recipients. Perspectives, 3(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  15. Kaba, A. J. (2005). The gradual shift of wealth and power from African American males to African females. Journal of African American Studies, 9(3), 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaba, A. J. (2006). The blood and family relations between Africans and Europeans in the United States. African Renaissance, 3(2), 105–114.Google Scholar
  17. Kaba, A. J. (2007). The black world and the dual brain drain: A focus on African Americans. Journal of African American Studies, 11(1), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kao, G., & Thompson, J. S. (2003). Racial and ethnic stratification in educational achievement and attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 417–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lemelle, A. (2002). The effects of the intersection of race, gender and educational class on occupational prestige. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(2), 89–97.Google Scholar
  20. Levine, R. S., Briggs, N. C., Kilbourne, B. S., King, W. D., Fry-Johnson, Y., Baltrus, P. T., et al. (2007). Black–white mortality from HIV in the United States before and after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996. American Journal of Public Health, 97(10), 1884–1892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lew, J. (2007). Americans in class: Charting the achievement gap among Korean American Youth. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  22. Mattis, J. S. (1997). Spirituality and religiosity in the lives of black women. Perspective, 3(2), 1–6.Google Scholar
  23. Mattis, J. S., Taylor, R. J., & Chatters, L. M. (2001). Are they truly not religious? A multi-method analysis of the attitudes of religiously noninvolved African American women. Perspectives, 7(1), 90–103.Google Scholar
  24. O’Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Kumar, R. (2006). How substance use differs among American secondary schools. Prevention Science, 7(4), 409–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Perreira, K. M., & Cortes, K. E. (2006). Race/ethnicity and nativity differences in alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health, 96(9), 1629–1636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reddy, P., Resnicow, K., Omardien, R., & Kambaran, N. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of substance use among high school students in South Africa and the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 97(10), 1859–1864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Robnett, B. (2007). Gendered resource returns: African American institutions and political engagement. Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine. Paper 07’04. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cds/07-04.
  28. Sabol, W. J., Minton, T. D., & Harrison, P. M. (2007). Prison and jail inmates at midyear 2006. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin. US Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. June.Google Scholar
  29. Taylor, D. M., Johnson, M. B., Voas, R. B., & Turrisi, R. (2006). Demographic and academic trends in drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems on dry college campuses. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 50(4), 35–54.Google Scholar
  30. Taylor, R. J., & Lockery, S. A. (1995). Socio-economic status of older Black Americans: Education, income, poverty, political participation, and religious involvement. Perspective, 2(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  31. U.S. Census Bureau (2002). Census 2000 PHC-T-8. Race and Hispanic or Latino origin by age and sex for the United States: 2000. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  32. Wong, F., & Halgin, R. (2006). The “model minority”: Bane or blessing for Asian Americans? Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 34(1), 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhou, M., & Kim, S. S. (2006). Community forces, social capital, and educational achievement: The case of supplementary education in the Chinese and Korean immigrant communities. Harvard Educational Review, 76(1), 1–29.Google Scholar
  34. Wallace, J. M. Jr., Yamaguchi, R., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E., & Johnston, L. D. (2007). Religiosity and adolescent substance use: The role of individual and contextual influences. Social Problems, 54(2), 308–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Department of Public and Healthcare AdministrationSeton Hall UniversitySouth OrangeUSA

Personalised recommendations