Human Nature

pp 1–21 | Cite as

Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers

  • Raymond HamesEmail author


There is a well-entrenched schism on the frequency (how often), intensity (deaths per 100,000/year), and evolutionary significance of warfare among hunter-gatherers compared with large-scale societies. To simplify, Rousseauians argue that warfare among prehistoric and contemporary hunter-gatherers was nearly absent and, if present, was a late cultural invention. In contrast, so-called Hobbesians argue that violence was relatively common but variable among hunter-gatherers. To defend their views, Rousseauians resort to a variety of tactics to diminish the apparent frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare. These tactics include redefining war, censoring ethnographic accounts of warfare in comparative analyses, misconstruing archaeological evidence, and claiming that outside contact inflates the intensity of warfare among hunter-gatherers. These tactics are subject to critical analysis and are mostly found to be wanting. Furthermore, Hobbesians with empirical data have already established that the frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare is greater compared with large-scale societies even though horticultural societies engage in warfare more intensively than hunter-gatherers. In the end I argue that although war is a primitive trait we may share with chimpanzees and/or our last common ancestor, the ability of hunter-gatherer bands to live peaceably with their neighbors, even though war may occur, is a derived trait that fundamentally distinguishes us socially and politically from chimpanzee societies. It is a point often lost in these debates.


Hunter-gatherers War Chimpanzees Peace Comparative research 



I thank Phil Geib, Azar Gat, Bernard Chapais, three anonymous reviewers and especially Michael Wilson for their careful reading and useful comments on the manuscript. I also would like to thank my research assistant Victoria Salinas for her tabulations of the SOI data in Fry and Söderberg (2013).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA

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