Human Nature

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 14–32 | Cite as

Possible Balancing Selection in Human Female Homosexuality

  • Andrea Camperio CianiEmail author
  • Umberto Battaglia
  • Linda Cesare
  • Giorgia Camperio Ciani
  • Claudio Capiluppi


A growing number of researchers suggest that female homosexuality is at least in part influenced by genetic factors. Unlike for male homosexuality, few familial studies have attempted to explore maintenance of this apparently fitness-detrimental trait in the population. Using multiple recruitment methods, we explored fecundity and sexual orientation within the pedigrees of 1,458 adult female respondents. We compared 487 homosexual and 163 bisexual with 808 heterosexual females and 30,203 of their relatives. Our data suggest that the direct fitness of homosexual females is four times lower than the direct fitness of heterosexual females of corresponding ages. The prevalence of nonheterosexuality within the homosexual female respondents’ families (2.83%) appear to be more than four times higher than the basal prevalence in the Italian population (0.63%). Pedigree size and relative fecundity in both the paternal and maternal sides of the homosexual women’s families were significantly higher than in the heterosexuals’ families. If confirmed, the relative average fecundity increase within the family seems to offset the loss in fitness due to the low direct fitness of homosexual females. Therefore, the balanced fecundity in the homosexual females’ families may allow the trait to be maintained at a low-frequency equilibrium in the population.


Female homosexuality Fecundity Fitness Pedigrees Balancing selection 



This research was partly funded by a BIRD 2017 research grant from the University of Padova, Italy, assigned to Andrea Camperio Ciani.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Camperio Ciani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Umberto Battaglia
    • 1
  • Linda Cesare
    • 1
  • Giorgia Camperio Ciani
    • 2
  • Claudio Capiluppi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Pedagogy and Applied PsychologyUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Department of Philosophy, Pedagogy and PsychologyUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly

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