Human Nature

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 149–172

A Survey of Non-Classical Polyandry

Article

Abstract

We have identified a sample of 53 societies outside of the classical Himalayan and Marquesean area that permit polyandrous unions. Our goal is to broadly describe the demographic, social, marital, and economic characteristics of these societies and to evaluate some hypotheses of the causes of polyandry. We demonstrate that although polyandry is rare it is not as rare as commonly believed, is found worldwide, and is most common in egalitarian societies. We also argue that polyandry likely existed during early human history and should be examined from an evolutionary perspective. Our analysis reveals that it may be a predictable response to a high operational sex ratio favoring males and may also be a response to high rates of male mortality and, possibly, male absenteeism. Other factors may contribute, but our within-polyandry sample limits analysis.

Keywords

Polyandry Pair-bonding Cross-cultural analysis Marriage Operational sex ratio 

References

  1. Aginsky, B. W. (1939). Control in the Shanel (Pomo) Tribe. American Sociological Review, 4, 209–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alès, C. (2002). A story of unspontaneous generation: Yanomami male co-procreation and the theory of substances. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 62–85). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, R. D. (1974). The evolution of social behavior. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5, 325–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alkire, W. H. (1965). Lamotrek Atoll and inter-island socioeconomic ties. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  5. Balikci, A. (1963). The Netsilik Eskimo. New York: Natural History Press.Google Scholar
  6. Beckerman, S., Lizarralde, R., Lizarralde, M., Bai, J., Ballew, C., Schroeder, S., et al. (2002). The Bari partible paternity project, phase one. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 27–41). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  7. Beckerman, S., Lizzaralde, R., Ballew, C., Sissel, S., Fingelto, C., Garrison, A., et al. (1998). The Bari partible paternity project: preliminary results. Current Anthropology, 39, 164–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beckerman, S., & Valentine, P. (Eds.). (2002a). Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  9. Beckerman, S., & Valentine, P. (2002b). Introduction: The concept of partible paternity among native South Americans. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in South America (pp. 1–13). Gainesville: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
  10. Berreman, G. D. (1962). Pahari polyandry: a comparison. American Anthropologist, 64, 60–75.Google Scholar
  11. Berreman, G. D. (1975). Himalayan polyandry and the domestic cycle. American Ethnologist, 2, 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Binford, L. (2002). Constructing frames of reference: An analytical method for archaeological theory building using ethnographic and environmental data sets. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  13. Birdsell, J. (1958). On population structure in generalized hunting and collecting populations. Evolution, 12, 189–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Birdsell, J. (1968). Some predictions for the pleistocene based on equilibrium systems among recent foragers. In R. Lee & I. DeVore (Eds.), Man the hunter (pp. 229–240). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  15. Birket-Smith, K. (1929). The Caribou Eskimos: Material and social life and their cultural position. Report of the Fifth Thule Expedition 1921–24, 5(1). Copenhagen: Gyldeddalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar
  16. Bollig, L. (1967). The inhabitants of the Truk Islands: Religion, life, and a short grammar of a Micronesian people. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files (Originally published in 1927).Google Scholar
  17. Bontier, P., Le Verrier, J., & Major, R. H. (1872). The Canarian, or book of the conquest and conversion of the Canarians in the year 1402. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society.Google Scholar
  18. Burch, E. (1970). Marriage and divorce among North Alaskan Eskimos. In P. Bohannan (Ed.), Divorce and after (pp. 152–181). Garden City: Doubleday & Co.Google Scholar
  19. Burch, E. S. (1975). Eskimo kinsmen: Changing family relationships in northwest Alaska. St. Paul: West.Google Scholar
  20. Cartagenes, R. (2010). Ensaio Sobre os Zoe. Retrieved 5/22/2010, from http://www.amazoe.org.br/textoreferencia/ensaio_livro_tupi.pdf
  21. Cassidy, M. L., & Lee, G. R. (1989). Study of polyandry: a critique and synthesis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 20, 1–11.Google Scholar
  22. Chandra, R. (1987). Polyandry in the North-Western Himalayas: Some changing trends. In M. K. Raha & P. C. Coomar (Eds.), Polyandry in India (pp. 130–154). Delhi: Gian.Google Scholar
  23. Chernela, J. M. (2002). Fathering in the Northwest Amazon of Brazil: Competition, Monopoly, and Partition. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 160–177). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper, J. M. (1942). Some anthropological publications of 1941. Primitive Man, 15(3/4), 71–74.Google Scholar
  25. Cormier, L. A. (2003). Kinship with monkeys: The Guaja foragers of Eastern Amazonia. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Crocker, W. H. (2002). Canela “Other Fathers”: Partible paternity and its changing practices. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 86–104). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  27. Czaplicka, M. A. (1914). Aboriginal Siberia, a study in social anthropology. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  28. Damas, D. (1975). Demographic aspects of Central Eskimo marriage practices. American Ethnologist, 2, 409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davydov, G. I., Khvostov, N. A., & Shishkov, A. S. (1810). Dvukratnoe puteshestvie. Google Scholar
  30. De Laguna, F. (1972). Under Mount Saint Elias: The history and culture of the Yakutat Tlingit. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  31. Deacon, B., & Wedgwood, C. H. (1934). Malekula, a vanishing people in the New Hebrides. London: G. Routledge & Sons.Google Scholar
  32. Dempsey, H. A. (1986). The Blackfoot Indians. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.Google Scholar
  33. Dutilleux, J. P. (Writer) (2007). “The Zo-é: Nomads from the Amazon.” Alexandra Films. Available at http://oxfordhumanities.com/products_details.php?name=products&id=37
  34. Ember, C. (1983). The relative decline in women’s contribution to agriculture with intensification. American Anthropologist, 85, 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Emlen, S. T., & Oring, L. W. (1977). Ecology, sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems. Science, 197, 215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Endicott, K., & Endicott, K. (2008). The headman was a woman. Denver: Waveland.Google Scholar
  37. Erikson, P. (2002). Several fathers in one’s cap: Polyandrous conception among the Panoan Matis (Amazonas, Brazil). In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 123–136). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  38. Finley, J. P., & Churchill, W. (1913). The Subanu: Studies of a sub-Visayan mountain folk of Mindanao. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington.Google Scholar
  39. Fisher, H. (2000). Lust, attraction, attachment: biology and the evolution of the three primary emotion systems of mating, reproduction, and parenting. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 25, 96–103.Google Scholar
  40. Fisher, H., Aron, A., & Brown, L. (2006). Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 6, 2173–2186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gardner, P. M. (1972). The Paliyans. In M. G. Bicchieri (Ed.), Hunters and gatherers today (pp. 404–450). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  42. Goldizen, A. W. (1990). A comparative perspective on the evolution of tamarin and marmoset social systems. International Journal of Primatology, 11, 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gayton, A. H. (1948). Yokuts and Western Mono ethnography: Tulare Lake, Southern Valley, and Central Foothill Yokuts. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  44. Goldman, I. (1963). The Cubeo Indians of the Northwest Amazon (Vol. 2). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  45. Goldstein, M. C. (1978). Pahari and Tibetan polyandry revisited. Ethnology, 17, 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gomes, M. P. (1991). O povo Guaja e as condicoes reais para a sua sobrevivencia. São Paulo: Centro Ecumenico de Documentacao e Informacao.Google Scholar
  47. Gomes, M. P. (1996). Os indios Guaja: demografia, terra, perspectivas de futuro. Relatorio das pesquisas realizadas. Núcleo de Pesquisa Acadêmica da FAE Centro Universitário.Google Scholar
  48. Goodenough, W. H. (1951). Property, kin, and community on Truk. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Goody, J. (1976). Production and reproduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Gough, E. K. (1952). Changing kinship usages in the setting of political and economic change among the Nayars of Malabar. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 82, 71–87.Google Scholar
  51. Gough, E. K. (1959). The Nayars and the definition of marriage. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 89, 23–34.Google Scholar
  52. Gregor, T. (1985). Anxious pleasures: The sexual lives of an Amazonian people. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  53. Grinnell, G. B. (1891). Marriage among the pawnees. American Anthropologist, 4, 275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guttentag, M., & Secord, P. F. (1983). Too many women? The sex ratio question. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Haddix, K. A. (2001). Leaving your wife and your brothers: when polyandrous marriages fall apart. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Haddix, K. A., & Gurung, J. (1999). “Excess women”: non-marriage and reproduction in two ethnic Tibetan communities of Humla, Nepal. Himalayan Research Bulletin, 19(1), 56–65.Google Scholar
  57. Hames, R. (1992). Variation in paternal care among the Yanomamö. In B. Hewlett (Ed.), The father’s role: Cultural and evolutionary perspectives (pp. 85–110). Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  58. Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heinsohn, R., Ebert, D., Legge, S., et al. (2007). Genetic evidence for cooperative polyandry in reverse dichromatic Eclectus parrots. Animal Behaviour, 74, 1047–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hill, K., & Hurtado, A. M. (1996). Ache life history: The ecology and demography of a foraging people. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  61. Hollis, A. C. (1905). The Masai: Their language and folklore. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  62. Hose, C., McDougall, W., & Haddon, A. C. (1912). The pagan tribes of Borneo: a description of their physical, moral and intellectual condition, with some discussion of their ethnic relations. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. Howitt, A. W. (1904). The native tribes of south-east Australia. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  64. Hrdlicka, A. (1975). The anthropology of Kodiak Island. New York: AMS.Google Scholar
  65. Hrdy, S. B. (1981). The woman that never evolved. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Hrdy, S. B. (2000). The optimal number of fathers: evolution, demography, and history in the shaping of female mate preferences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 907, 75–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hrdy, S. B. (2005). Comes the child before man: How cooperative breeding and prolonged postweaning dependence shaped human potentials. In B. Hewlett & M. Lamb (Eds.), Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and colonial perspectives (pp. 65–91). Piscataway: Aldine Transaction.Google Scholar
  68. Hrdy, S. B. (2009). Mothers and others. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Jankowiak, W., Sudakov, M., & Wilreker, B. C. (2005). Co-wife conflict and co-operation. Ethnology, 44, 81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Janssen, M. H., Arcese, P., Sloan, M. S., & Jewell, K. J. (2008). Polyandry and sex ratio in the song sparrow. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 120, 395–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jennes, D. (1922). The Life of the Copper Eskimos. Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913–18, vol. 12. Ottawa: F. A. Ackland.Google Scholar
  72. Jochelson, W. (1908). The Koryak. Leiden: E. J. Brill ltd.Google Scholar
  73. Jones, D. M. (1976). Aleuts in transition: A comparison of two villages. Seattle: Published for the Institute of Social, Economic, and Government Research, University of Alaska, by the University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  74. Kasdan, L. (1965). Family structure, migration and the entrepreneur. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 7, 345–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kensinger, K. M. (2002). The dilemmas of co-paternity in Cashinahua Society. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 14–26). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  76. Kjellstrom, R. (1973). Eskimo marriage. Stockholm: Nordiska Meseets.Google Scholar
  77. Kramer, K. (2010). Cooperative breeding and its significance to the demographic success of humans. Annual Review of Anthropology, 39, 417–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Krause, A. (1956). The Tlingit Indians: Results of a trip to the northwest coast of America and the Bering Straits. Seattle: Published for the American Ethnological Society by the University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  79. Kruger, D. J., & Nesse, R. M. (2006). An evolutionary life-history framework for understanding sex differences in human mortality rates. Human Nature, 17, 74–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kurbanov, A. (2010). The Hephthalites: An archaeological and historical analysis. Berlin: Free University.Google Scholar
  81. La Barre, W. (1948). The Aymara Indians of the Lake Titicaca Plateau. Menasha: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  82. Lantis, M. (1970). The Aleut social system: 1750 to 1810. In R. E. Ackerman (Ed.), Ethnohistory in southwestern Alaska and the southern Yukon (pp. 139–301). Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  83. Lantis, M. (1984). Aleut. In D. Damas (Ed.), Arctic: Handbook of North American Indians 5 (pp. 161–184). Washington D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  84. Laraia, R. de B. (1963). “Arranjos Poliandricos” na Sociedade Surui. Revista do Museu Paulista, 14, 71–75.Google Scholar
  85. Lee, R. B. (1972). !Kung Spatial Organization: an ecological and historical perspective. Human Ecology, 1, 125–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lesser, A. (1930). Levirate and fraternal polyandry among the pawnees. Man, 30, 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Levine, N. E. (1990). Nyinba polyandry and the allocation of paternity. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 11, 283–298.Google Scholar
  88. Levine, N. E., & Sangree, W. H. (1980). Conclusion: Asian and African systems of polyandry. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 11, 385–410.Google Scholar
  89. Levine, N. E., & Silk, J. B. (1997). Why polyandry fails: sources of instability in polyandrous marriages. Current Anthropology, 38, 375–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Linnekin, J. (1990). Sacred queens and women of consequence: rank, gender, and colonialism in the Hawaiian Islands. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lips, J. E. (1947). Naskapi law: law and order in a hunting society. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 37, 379–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Majumdar, D. N. (1962). Himalayan Polyandry. London: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  93. Marlowe, F. W. (2000). Paternal investment and the human mating systems. Behavioural Processes, 51, 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Marlowe, F. W. (2003). The mating system of foragers in the standard cross-cultural sample. Cross-Cultural Research, 37, 282–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Muller, J. C. (1980). On the relevance of having two husbands: contribution to the study of polygynous/polyandrous marital forms of the Jos Plateau. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 11(3), 359–369.Google Scholar
  96. Murdock, G. P. (1949). Social structure. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  97. Murdock, G. P. (1957). World ethnographic sample. American Anthropologist, 59, 664–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Murdock, G. P. (1967). Ethnographic atlas: a summary. Ethnology, 6, 109–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Murdock, G. P., & White, D. (1969). Standard cross-cultural sample. Ethnology, 8, 329–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Parmar, Y. S. (1975). Polyandry in the Himalayas. Delhi: Vikas.Google Scholar
  101. Park, W. Z. (1937). Paviotso polyandry. American Anthropologist, 39, 366–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Peter, Prince of Greece. (1963). A study of polyandry. Mouton: The Hague.Google Scholar
  103. Peters, J. F. (1982). Polyandry among the Yanomama revisited. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 13, 89–95.Google Scholar
  104. Peters, J. F. (1998). Life among the Yanomami. New York: Broadview.Google Scholar
  105. Peters, J. F., & Hunt, C. L. (1975). Polyandry among the Yanomama Shirishana. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 6, 197–207.Google Scholar
  106. Phillips, H. P. (1965). Thai peasant personality: The patterning of interpersonal behavior in the village of Bang Chan. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  107. Pollet, T. V., & Nettle, D. (2008). Driving a hard bargain: sex ratio and male marriage success in a historical US population. Biology Letters, 4, 31–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pollock, D. (2002). Partible paternity and multiple maternity among the Kulina. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 42–61). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  109. Rasmussen, K. (1931). The Netsilik Eskimos. Report of the Fifth Thule Expedition 1921-24, vol. 8. Copenhagen: Gyldeddalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar
  110. Rainey, F. G. (1947). The whale hunters of Tigara. Anthropological Papers of the AMNH 41(2). New York. Available online at http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/125.
  111. Reid, J. P. (1970). A law of blood: The primitive law of the Cherokee nation. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Riazanovskii, V. A. (1965). Fundamental principles of Mongol law. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.Google Scholar
  113. Roscoe, R. C. J. (1932). Immigrants and their influence in the Lake Region of Central Africa. In W. R. Dawson (Ed.), The Frazer lectures, 1922–1932 (pp. 25–46). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  114. Saksena, R. N. (1962). Social economy of a polyandrous people. London: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  115. Sangree, W. H. (1980). The persistence of polyandry in Irigwe, Nigeria. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 11, 335–343.Google Scholar
  116. Schaffner, C. M., & French, J. A. (2004). Behavioral and endocrine responses in male marmosets to the establishment of multimale breeding groups: evidence for non-monopolizing facultative polyandry. International Journal of Primatology, 25, 709–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schebesta, P. (1954). The Negritos of Asia. Wien-Modling: St. Gabriel-Verlag.Google Scholar
  118. Service, E. R. (1962). Primitive Social Organization: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  119. Skeat, W. W., & Blagden, C. O. (1966). Pagan races of the Malay Peninsula. New York: Barnes & Noble.Google Scholar
  120. Smith, A. M. (1974). Ethnography of the Northern Utes. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  121. Smith, E. A., & Smith, S. A. (1994). Inuit sex-ratio variation: population control, ethnographic error, or parental manipulation? Current Anthropology, 35, 595–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Smith, E. (1998). Is Tibetan polyandry adaptive? Methodological and metatheoretical analyses. Human Nature, 9, 225–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Smuts, B. (1992). Male aggression against women: an evolutionary perspective. Human Nature, 3, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Spencer, P. (1988). The Maasai of Matapato: A study of rituals of rebellion. Bloomington: Indiana University Press in association with the International African Institute, London.Google Scholar
  125. Spiro, M. E. (1975). Kibbutz: Venture in utopia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Starkweather, K. (2010). Exploration into human polyandry: An evolutionary examination of the non-classical cases. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  127. Stefansson, V. (1921). The friendly Arctic: The story of five years in Polar regions. New York: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Steward, J. H. (1936). Shoshoni polyandry. American Anthropologist, 38, 561–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stone, E. A., Shackelford, T. K., & Buss, D. M. (2007). Sex ratio and mate preferences: a cross-cultural investigation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 288–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Symons, D. (1982). Another woman that never existed. Quarterly Review of Biology, 57, 297–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Symons, D. (1989). A critique of Darwinian anthropology. Ethology and Sociobiology, 10, 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Symons, D. (1992). On the use and misuse of Darwinism in the Study of Human Behavior. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 137–159). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Tambiah, S. J. (1966). Polyandry in Ceylon. In C. von Fuhrer-Haimendorf (Ed.), Caste and kin in Nepal, India and Ceylon (pp. 264–358). London: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar
  134. Tew, M. (1951). A form of polyandry among the Lele of the Kasai. Journal of the International African Institute, 21, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Valentine, P. (2002). Fathers that never exist: Exclusion of the role of shared father among the Curripaco of the northwest Amazon. In S. Beckerman & P. Valentine (Eds.), Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America (pp. 178–191). Gainesville: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
  136. VanStone, J. W. (1962). Point hope, an Eskimo village in transition. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  137. Wagner, A. P., Creel, S., Frank, L. G., & Kalinowski, S. T. (2007). Patterns of relatedness and parentage in an asocial, polyandrous striped hyena population. Molecular Ecology, 16, 4356–4369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Walker, R. S., Flinn, M. V., & Hill, K. R. (2010). Evolutionary history of partible paternity in lowland South America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 107, 195–200.Google Scholar
  139. Walum, H., Westberg, L., Henningsson, S., Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Igl, W., et al. (2008). Genetic variation in the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (AVPR1A) associates with pair-bonding behavior in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 105, 14153–14156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Westermarck, E. (1926). A short history of marriage. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  141. Weyer, E. M. (1932). The Eskimos: Their environment and folkways. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Weyer, E. M. (1959). Primitive peoples today. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology DepartmentUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Anthropology DepartmentUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations