Human Nature

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 19–38

Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

A Novel Theory and First Population-Based Test of Black-White Differences in Telomere Length
  • Arline T. Geronimus
  • Margaret T. Hicken
  • Jay A. Pearson
  • Sarah J. Seashols
  • Kelly L. Brown
  • Tracey Dawson Cruz
Article

Abstract

We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited.

Keywords

Health disparities Aging Stress Race/ethnicity Weathering Women’s health Poverty Telomeres 

References

  1. Adaikalakoteswari, A., Balasubramanyam, M., & Mohan, V. (2005). Telomere shortening occurs in Asian Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine, 22(9), 1151–1156.Google Scholar
  2. Akbartabartoori, M., Lean, M. E., & Hankey, C. R. (2005). Relationships between cigarette smoking, body size and body shape. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 29(2), 236–243.Google Scholar
  3. Allsopp, R. C., Vaziri, H., Patterson, C., Goldstein, S., Younglai, E. V., Futcher, A. B., et al. (1992). Telomere length predicts replicative capacity of human fibroblasts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89(21), 10114–10118.Google Scholar
  4. Almeida, D. M., Neupert, S. D., Banks, S. R., & Serido, J. (2005). Do daily stress processes account for socioeconomic health disparities? Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(Spec No 2), 34–39.Google Scholar
  5. Aviv, A. (2002). Chronology versus biology: Telomeres, essential hypertension, and vascular aging. Hypertension, 40(3), 229–232.Google Scholar
  6. Bakaysa, S. L., Mucci, L. A., Slagboom, P. E., Boomsma, D. I., McClearn, G. E., Johansson, B., et al. (2007). Telomere length predicts survival independent of genetic influences. Aging Cell, 6(6), 769–774.Google Scholar
  7. Barnes, L. L., Mendes De Leon, C. F., Wilson, R. S., Bienias, J. L., Bennett, D. A., & Evans, D. A. (2004). Racial differences in perceived discrimination in a community population of older blacks and whites. Journal of Aging and Health, 16(3), 315–337.Google Scholar
  8. Barrett-Connor, E., & Bush, T. L. (1991). Estrogen and coronary heart disease in women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 265(14), 1861–1867.Google Scholar
  9. Barsky, R., Bound, J., Charles, K. K., & Lupton, J. P. (2002). Accounting for the black-white wealth gap: A nonparametric approach. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 97(459), 663–673.Google Scholar
  10. Bauer, M. E., Jeckel, C. M., & Luz, C. (2009). The role of stress factors during aging of the immune system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1153, 139–152.Google Scholar
  11. Bayne, S., Jones, M. E., Li, H., & Liu, J. P. (2007). Potential roles for estrogen regulation of telomerase activity in aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1114, 48–55.Google Scholar
  12. Benetos, A., Okuda, K., Lajemi, M., Kimura, M., Thomas, F., Skurnick, J., et al. (2001). Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: The gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity. Hypertension, 37(2 Part 2), 381–385.Google Scholar
  13. Bennett, G. G., Wolin, K. Y., Robinson, E. L., Fowler, S., & Edwards, C. L. (2005). Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 238–240.Google Scholar
  14. Bjorntorp, P. (1997). Body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and metabolic diseases. Nutrition, 13(9), 795–803.Google Scholar
  15. Brunner, E. J., Chandola, T., & Marmot, M. G. (2007). Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(7), 828–837.Google Scholar
  16. Burton, L. M., & Whitfield, K. E. (2003). “Weathering” towards poorer health in later life: Co-morbidity in urban low-income families. Public Policy and Aging Report, 13(3), 13–18.Google Scholar
  17. Burton, L. M., & Whitfield, K. E. (2006). Health, aging, and America’s poor: Ethnographic insights on family co-morbidity and cumulative disadvantage. In J. Baars (Ed.), Aging, globalization, and inequality: The new critical gerontology (pp. 215–230). Amityville: Baywood Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Cawthon, R. M. (2002). Telomere measurement by quantitative PCR. Nucleic Acids Research, 30(10), e47.Google Scholar
  19. Cawthon, R. M., Smith, K. R., O’Brien, E., Sivatchenko, A., & Kerber, R. A. (2003). Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet, 361(9355), 393–395.Google Scholar
  20. Chan, S. R., & Blackburn, E. H. (2004). Telomeres and telomerase. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 359(1441), 109–121.Google Scholar
  21. Charles, K. K., & Guryan, J. (2008). Prejudice and wages: An empirical assessment of Becker’s The Economics of Discrimination. Journal of Political Economy, 116(5), 773–809.Google Scholar
  22. Charles, K. K., & Hurst, E. (2002). The transition to home ownership and the black-white wealth gap. Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(2), 281–297.Google Scholar
  23. Cherkas, L. F., Aviv, A., Valdes, A. M., Hunkin, J. L., Gardner, J. P., Surdulescu, G. L., et al. (2006). The effects of social status on biological aging as measured by white-blood-cell telomere length. Aging Cell, 5(5), 361–365.Google Scholar
  24. Chisholm, J. S. (1993). Death, hope, and sex: Life-history theory and the development of reproductive strategies. Current Anthropology, 34, 1–24.Google Scholar
  25. Chisholm, J. S. (1999). Attachment and time preference: Relations between early stress and sexual behavior in a sample of American university women. Human Nature, 10, 51–83.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. M. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health (pp. 31–67). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  27. Cohen, S., Schwartz, J. E., Epel, E., Kirschbaum, C., Sidney, S., & Seeman, T. (2006). Socioeconomic status, race, and diurnal cortisol decline in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(1), 41–50.Google Scholar
  28. Colen, C. G., Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., & James, S. A. (2006). Maternal upward socioeconomic mobility and black-white disparities in infant birthweight. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 2032–2039.Google Scholar
  29. Cooper, R. S., Kaufman, J. S., & Ward, R. (2003). Race and genomics. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(12), 1166–1170.Google Scholar
  30. Crimmins, E. M., & Saito, Y. (2001). Trends in healthy life expectancy in the United States, 1970–1990: Gender, racial, and educational differences. Social Science and Medicine, 52(11), 1629–1641.Google Scholar
  31. Dallman, M. F., Pecoraro, N., Akana, S. F., La Fleur, S. E., Gomez, F., Houshyar, H., et al. (2003). Chronic stress and obesity: A new view of “comfort food”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(20), 11696–11701.Google Scholar
  32. Darity, W. A., & Mason, P. L. (1998). Evidence on discrimination in employment: Codes of color, codes of gender. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(2), 63–90.Google Scholar
  33. Demissie, S., Levy, D., Benjamin, E. J., Cupples, L. A., Gardner, J. P., Herbert, A., et al. (2006). Insulin resistance, oxidative stress, hypertension, and leukocyte telomere length in men from the Framingham Heart Study. Aging Cell, 5(4), 325–330.Google Scholar
  34. Dilworth-Anderson, P., & Rhoden, L. (2000). Caregiving roles in older women. In N. J. Burgess & E. Brown (Eds.), African-American women: An ecological perspective (pp. 83–98). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Dilworth-Anderson, P., Williams, I. C., & Gibson, B. E. (2002). Issues of race, ethnicity, and culture in caregiving research: A 20-year review (1980–2000). Gerontologist, 42(2), 237–272.Google Scholar
  36. Edo, M. D., & Andres, V. (2005). Aging, telomeres, and atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular Research, 66(2), 213–221.Google Scholar
  37. Epel, E. S., McEwen, B., Seeman, T., Matthews, K., Castellazzo, G., Brownell, K. D., et al. (2000). Stress and body shape: Stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(5), 623–632.Google Scholar
  38. Epel, E. S., Blackburn, E. H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Adler, N. E., Morrow, J. D., et al. (2004). Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(49), 17312–17315.Google Scholar
  39. Epel, E. S., Lin, J., Wilhelm, F. H., Wolkowitz, O. M., Cawthon, R., Adler, N. E., et al. (2006). Cell aging in relation to stress arousal and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31(3), 277–287.Google Scholar
  40. Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Johnson, C. L. (2002). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(14), 1723–1727.Google Scholar
  41. Frenck, R. W., Jr., Blackburn, E. H., & Shannon, K. M. (1998). The rate of telomere sequence loss in human leukocytes varies with age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(10), 5607–5610.Google Scholar
  42. Gallagher-Thompson, D., Shurgot, G. R., Rider, K., Gray, H. L., McKibbin, C. L., Kraemer, H. C., et al. (2006). Ethnicity, stress, and cortisol function in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: A preliminary study of family dementia caregivers and noncaregivers. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(4), 334–342.Google Scholar
  43. Gee, G. C., & Payne-Sturges, D. C. (2004). Environmental health disparities: A framework integrating psychosocial and environmental concepts. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(17), 1645–1653.Google Scholar
  44. Geronimus, A. T. (1992). The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: Evidence and speculations. Ethnicity and Disease, 2(3), 207–221.Google Scholar
  45. Geronimus, A. T. (2001). Understanding and eliminating racial inequalities in women’s health in the United States: The role of the weathering conceptual framework. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 56(4), 133–136, 149–150.Google Scholar
  46. Geronimus, A. T., & Thompson, J. P. (2004). To denigrate, ignore, or disrupt: Racial inequality in health and the impact of a policy-induced breakdown of African American communities. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 1(2), 247–279.Google Scholar
  47. Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., Waidmann, T. A., Hillemeier, M. M., & Burns, P. B. (1996). Excess mortality among blacks and whites in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 335(21), 1552–1558.Google Scholar
  48. Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., & Waidmann, T. A. (1999). Poverty, time, and place: variation in excess mortality across selected US populations, 1980–1990. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53(6), 325–334.Google Scholar
  49. Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., Waidmann, T. A., Colen, C. G., & Steffick, D. (2001). Inequality in life expectancy, functional status, and active life expectancy across selected black and white populations in the United States. Demography, 38(2), 227–251.Google Scholar
  50. Geronimus, A. T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (2006). “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96(5), 826–833.Google Scholar
  51. Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., Keene, D., & Hicken, M. (2007). Black-white differences in age trajectories of hypertension prevalence among adult women and men, 1999–2002. Ethnicity and Disease, 17(1), 40–48.Google Scholar
  52. Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., & Colen, C. G. (2008). To live and die in the United States: Race, place, and black-white health inequalities during the 1990s. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  53. Gil, M. E., & Coetzer, T. L. (2004). Real-time quantitative PCR of telomere length. Molecular Biotechnology, 27(2), 169–172.Google Scholar
  54. Gil, A. G., Wagner, E. F., & Tubman, J. G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African American adolescents: Empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction, 99(Suppl 2), 140–150.Google Scholar
  55. Graakjaer, J., Bischoff, C., Korsholm, L., Holstebroe, S., Vach, W., Bohr, V. A., et al. (2003). The pattern of chromosome-specific variations in telomere length in humans is determined by inherited, telomere-near factors and is maintained throughout life. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 124(5), 629–640.Google Scholar
  56. Green, R. L., Roinestad, I. C., Boland, C., & Hennessy, L. K. (2005). Developmental validation of the Quantifiler (TM) real-time PCR kits for the quantification of human nuclear DNA samples. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50(4), 809–825.Google Scholar
  57. Guthrie, B. J., Young, A. M., Williams, D. R., Boyd, C. J., & Kintner, E. K. (2002). African American girls’ smoking habits and day-to-day experiences with racial discrimination. Nursing Research, 51(3), 183–190.Google Scholar
  58. Haider, S., & Solon, G. (2006). Life-cycle variation in the association between current and lifetime earnings. American Economic Review, 96(4), 1308–1320.Google Scholar
  59. Harrison, D., Griendling, K. K., Landmesser, U., Hornig, B., & Drexler, H. (2003). Role of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis. American Journal of Cardiology, 91(3A), 7A–11A.Google Scholar
  60. Hayward, M. D., & Heron, M. (1999). Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans. Demography, 36(1), 77–91.Google Scholar
  61. Hicks-Bartlett, S. (2000). Between a rock and a hard place: The labyrinth of working and parenting in a poor community. In S. Danziger & A. C. Lin (Eds.), Coping with poverty: The social contexts of neighborhood, work, and family in the African-American community (pp. 27–51). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  62. Holzer, H. J., Offner, P., & Sorensen, E. (2005). Declining employment among young black less-educated men: The role of incarceration and child support. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(2), 329–350.Google Scholar
  63. Houben, J. M., Moonen, H. J., van Schooten, F. J., & Hageman, G. J. (2008). Telomere length assessment: biomarker of chronic oxidative stress? Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44(3), 235–246.Google Scholar
  64. Iwama, H., Ohyashiki, K., Ohyashiki, J. H., Hayashi, S., Yahata, N., Ando, K., et al. (1998). Telomeric length and telomerase activity vary with age in peripheral blood cells obtained from normal individuals. Human Genetics, 102(4), 397–402.Google Scholar
  65. Jarrett, R. L., & Burton, L. M. (1999). Dynamic dimensions of family-structure in low-income African American families: Emergent themes in qualitative research. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30(2), 177–187.Google Scholar
  66. Kalinowski, L., Dobrucki, I. T., & Malinski, T. (2004). Race-specific differences in endothelial function: Predisposition of African Americans to vascular diseases. Circulation, 109(21), 2511–2517.Google Scholar
  67. Kaufman, J. S., Cooper, R. S., & McGee, D. L. (1997). Socioeconomic status and health in blacks and whites: The problem of residual confounding and the resiliency of race. Epidemiology, 8(6), 621–628.Google Scholar
  68. Khansari, N., Shakiba, Y., & Mahmoudi, M. (2009). Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress as a major cause of age-related diseases and cancer. Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery, 3(1), 73–80.Google Scholar
  69. Khera, A., McGuire, D. K., Murphy, S. A., Stanek, H. G., Das, S. R., Vongpatanasin, W., et al. (2005). Race and gender differences in C-reactive protein levels. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 46(3), 464–469.Google Scholar
  70. Lancaster, J. B. (1989). Evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives on single parenthood. In R. Bell & N. Bell (Eds.), Sociobiology and the social sciences (pp. 63–72). Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lantz, P. M., House, J. S., Lepkowski, J. M., Williams, D. R., Mero, R. P., & Chen, J. (1998). Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: Results from a nationally representative prospective study of US adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(21), 1703–1708.Google Scholar
  72. LaViest, T. A., & Wallace, J. M. (2002). Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in African American neighborhoods. In T. LaViest (Ed.), Race, ethnicity and health (pp. 487–493). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  73. Lee, D. C., Im, J. A., Kim, J. H., Lee, H. R., & Shim, J. Y. (2005). Effect of long-term hormone therapy on telomere length in postmenopausal women. Yonsei Medical Journal, 46(4), 471–479.Google Scholar
  74. Leon, K. A., Hyre, A. D., Ompad, D., Desalvo, K. B., & Muntner, P. (2007). Perceived stress among a workforce 6 months following hurricane Katrina. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42(12), 1005–1011.Google Scholar
  75. Levine, R. S., Foster, J. E., Fullilove, R. E., Fullilove, M. T., Briggs, N. C., Hull, P. C., et al. (2001). Black-white inequalities in mortality and life expectancy, 1933–1999: Implications for healthy people 2010. Public Health Reports, 116(5), 474–483.Google Scholar
  76. Lindsey, J., McGill, N. I., Lindsey, L. A., Green, D. K., & Cooke, H. J. (1991). In vivo loss of telomeric repeats with age in humans. Mutation Research, 256(1), 45–48.Google Scholar
  77. Ljung, T., Holm, G., Friberg, P., Andersson, B., Bengtsson, B. A., Svensson, J., et al. (2000). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system in relation to waist/hip circumference ratio in men. Obesity Research, 8(7), 487–495.Google Scholar
  78. Lum, T. Y. (2005). Understanding the racial and ethnic differences in caregiving arrangements. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45(4), 3–21.Google Scholar
  79. Martin-Ruiz, C., Dickinson, H. O., Keys, B., Rowan, E., Kenny, R. A., & Von Zglinicki, T. (2006). Telomere length predicts poststroke mortality, dementia, and cognitive decline. Annals of Neurology, 60(2), 174–180.Google Scholar
  80. Matthews, C., Gorenne, I., Scott, S., Figg, N., Kirkpatrick, P., Ritchie, A., et al. (2006). Vascular smooth muscle cells undergo telomere-based senescence in human atherosclerosis: Effects of telomerase and oxidative stress. Circulation Research, 99(2), 156–164.Google Scholar
  81. Mayer, S. E., & Jencks, C. (1988). Poverty and the distribution of material hardship. Journal of Human Resources, 24, 88–114.Google Scholar
  82. McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(3), 171–179.Google Scholar
  83. McEwen, B. S., & Seeman, T. (1999). Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress. Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 30–47.Google Scholar
  84. Mokdad, A. H., Ford, E. S., Bowman, B. A., Nelson, D. E., Engelgau, M. M., Vinicor, F., et al. (2001). The continuing increase of diabetes in the US. Diabetes Care, 24(2), 412.Google Scholar
  85. Morello-Frosch, R., & Lopez, R. (2006). The riskscape and the color line: Examining the role of segregation in environmental health disparities. Environmental Research, 102(2), 181–196.Google Scholar
  86. Morillas, J. R. (2007). Assets, earnings mobility and the black-white gap. Social Science Research, 36(2), 808–833.Google Scholar
  87. Moyer, A. E., Rodin, J., Grilo, C. M., Cummings, N., Larson, L. M., & Rebuffe-Scrive, M. (1994). Stress-induced cortisol response and fat distribution in women. Obesity Research, 2(3), 255–262.Google Scholar
  88. Mullings, L., & Wali, A. (2001). Stress and resilience: The social context of reproduction in Central Harlem. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  89. Neitzel, H. (1986). A routine method for the establishment of permanent growing lymphoblastoid cell lines. Human Genetics, 73(4), 320–326.Google Scholar
  90. Okuda, K., Bardeguez, A., Gardner, J. P., Rodriguez, P., Ganesh, V., Kimura, M., et al. (2002). Telomere length in the newborn. Pediatric Research, 52(3), 377–381.Google Scholar
  91. Ondrich, J., Ross, S., & Yinger, J. (2003). Now you see it, now you don’t: Why do real estate agents withhold available houses from black customers? Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(4), 854–873.Google Scholar
  92. Oths, K. S., Dunn, L. L., & Palmer, N. S. (2001). A prospective study of psychosocial job strain and birth outcomes. Epidemiology, 12(6), 744–746.Google Scholar
  93. Panagiotakos, D. B., Pitsavos, C., Yannakoulia, M., Chrysohoou, C., & Stefanadis, C. (2005). The implication of obesity and central fat on markers of chronic inflammation: The ATTICA study. Atherosclerosis, 183(2), 308–315.Google Scholar
  94. Pearson, J. A. (2008). Can’t buy me whiteness: New lessons from the Titanic on race, ethnicity, and health. DuBois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 5(1), 27–47.Google Scholar
  95. Sampson, M. J., Winterbone, M. S., Hughes, J. C., Dozio, N., & Hughes, D. A. (2006). Monocyte telomere shortening and oxidative DNA damage in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 29(2), 283–289.Google Scholar
  96. Sapolsky, R. M. (1998). Why zebras don’t get ulcers: An updated guide to stress, stress-related diseases, and coping. New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  97. Sapolsky, R. M. (2004). Organismal stress and telomeric aging: An unexpected connection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(50), 17323–17324.Google Scholar
  98. Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munck, A. U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrinology Review, 21(1), 55–89.Google Scholar
  99. Schoendorf, K. C., Hogue, C. J., Kleinman, J. C., & Rowley, D. (1992). Mortality among infants of black as compared with white college-educated parents. New England Journal of Medicine, 326(23), 1522–1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Seeman, T. E., McEwen, B. S., Singer, B. H., Albert, M. S., & Rowe, J. W. (1997). Increase in urinary cortisol excretion and memory declines: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 82(8), 2458–2465.Google Scholar
  101. Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  102. Sharp, L. K., Kimmel, L. G., Kee, R., Saltoun, C., & Chang, C. H. (2007). Assessing the Perceived Stress Scale for African American adults with asthma and low literacy. Journal of Asthma, 44(4), 311–316.Google Scholar
  103. Slagboom, P. E., Droog, S., & Boomsma, D. I. (1994). Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of 3 age-groups. American Journal of Human Genetics, 55(5), 876–882.Google Scholar
  104. Sowers, M., Crawford, S. L., Sternfeld, B., Morganstein, D., Gold, E. B., Greendale, G. A., et al. (2000). SWAN: A multicenter, multiethnic, community-based cohort study of women and the menopausal transition. In R. A. Lobo, J. L. Kelsey, & R. Marcus (Eds.), Menopause: Biology and pathobiology (pp. 175–188). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  105. Stack, C. B. (1974). All our kin: Strategies for survival in a black community. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  106. Stack, C. B., & Burton, L. M. (1993). Kinscripts. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 24(2), 157–170.Google Scholar
  107. Steptoe, A., & Marmot, M. (2006). Psychosocial, hemostatic, and inflammatory correlates of delayed poststress blood pressure recovery. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(4), 531–537.Google Scholar
  108. Stoddard, J. L., Johnson, C. A., Sussman, S., Dent, C., & Boley-Cruz, T. (1998). Tailoring outdoor tobacco advertizing to minorities in Los Angeles County. Journal of Health Communication, 3(2), 137–146.Google Scholar
  109. Taylor, S. E. (2001). The health status of women. In R. L. Braithwaite & S. E. Taylor (Eds.), Health issues in the black community (pp. 55–72). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  110. Taylor, J., & Turner, R. J. (2002). Perceived discrimination, social stress, and depression in the transition to adulthood: Racial contrasts. Social Psychology Quarterly, 65(3), 213–225.Google Scholar
  111. Valdes, A. M., Andrew, T., Gardner, J. P., Kimura, M., Oelsner, E., Cherkas, L. F., et al. (2005). Obesity, cigarette smoking, and telomere length in women. Lancet, 366(9486), 662–664.Google Scholar
  112. Vines, A. I., Baird, D. D., Stevens, J., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Light, K. C., & McNeilly, M. (2007). Associations of abdominal fat with perceived racism and passive emotional responses to racism in African American women. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 526–530.Google Scholar
  113. von Zglinicki, T. (2002). Oxidative stress shortens telomeres. Trends in Biochemical Science, 27(7), 339–344.Google Scholar
  114. von Zglinicki, T., Pilger, R., & Sitte, N. (2000). Accumulation of single-strand breaks is the major cause of telomere shortening in human fibroblasts. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 28(1), 64–74.Google Scholar
  115. Wall, F. E., Henkel, R. D., Stern, M. P., Jenson, H. B., & Moyer, M. P. (1995). An efficient method for routine Epstein-Barr virus immortalization of human B lymphocytes. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology Animal, 31(2), 156–159.Google Scholar
  116. Wallace, R. B. (2001). Applying genetic study designs to social and behavioral population surveys. In E. F. Finch, J. W. Vaupel, & K. Kinsella (Eds.), Cells and surveys: Should biological measures be included in social science research? (pp. 229–249). Washington: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  117. Warren-Findlow, J. (2006). Weathering: Stress and heart disease in African American women living in Chicago. Qualitative Health Research, 16(2), 221–237.Google Scholar
  118. Western, B. (2006). Punishment and inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  119. Wiemann, S. U., Satyanarayana, A., Tsahuridu, M., Tillmann, H. L., Zender, L., Klempnauer, J., et al. (2002). Hepatocyte telomere shortening and senescence are general markers of human liver cirrhosis. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, 16(9), 935–942.Google Scholar
  120. Williams, D. R. (1999). Race, socioeconomic status, and health. The added effects of racism and discrimination. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 173–188.Google Scholar
  121. Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1997). Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods. British Medical Journal, 314(7089), 1271–1274.Google Scholar
  122. Wong, M. D., Shapiro, M. F., Boscardin, W. J., & Ettner, S. L. (2002). Contribution of major diseases to disparities in mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(20), 1585–1592.Google Scholar
  123. Wooldridge, J. M. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  124. Yen, I. H., Ragland, D. R., Greiner, B. A., & Fisher, J. M. (1999). Workplace discrimination and alcohol consumption: Findings from the San Francisco Muni Health and Safety Study. Ethnicity and Disease, 9(1), 70–80.Google Scholar
  125. Yinger, J. (1998). Evidence on discrimination in consumer markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(2), 23–40.Google Scholar
  126. Zenk, S. N., Schulz, A. J., Israel, B. A., James, S. A., Bao, S., & Wilson, M. L. (2005). Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and the spatial accessibility of supermarkets in metropolitan Detroit. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 660–667.Google Scholar
  127. Zenk, S. N., Schulz, A. J., Israel, B. A., James, S. A., Bao, S., & Wilson, M. L. (2006). Fruit and vegetable access differs by community racial composition and socioeconomic position in Detroit, Michigan. Ethnicity and Disease, 16(1), 275–280.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arline T. Geronimus
    • 1
  • Margaret T. Hicken
    • 2
  • Jay A. Pearson
    • 3
  • Sarah J. Seashols
    • 4
  • Kelly L. Brown
    • 4
  • Tracey Dawson Cruz
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Public Health and Population Studies CenterUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health Behavior and Health EducationSchool of Public HealthAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Population Studies CenterUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of Forensic ScienceVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations