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Human Nature

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 204–268 | Cite as

Fundamental Dimensions of Environmental Risk

The Impact of Harsh versus Unpredictable Environments on the Evolution and Development of Life History Strategies
  • Bruce J. Ellis
  • Aurelio José Figueredo
  • Barbara H. Brumbach
  • Gabriel L. Schlomer
Article

Abstract

The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH strategies; and that these influences depend on population densities and related levels of intraspecific competition and resource scarcity, on age schedules of mortality, on the sensitivity of morbidity-mortality to the organism’s resource-allocation decisions, and on the extent to which environmental fluctuations affect individuals versus populations over short versus long timescales. These interrelated factors operate at evolutionary and developmental levels and should be distinguished because they exert distinctive effects on LH traits and are hierarchically operative in terms of primacy of influence. Although converging lines of evidence support core assumptions of the theory, many questions remain unanswered. This review demonstrates the value of applying a multilevel evolutionary-developmental approach to the analysis of a central feature of human phenotypic variation: LH strategy.

Keywords

Life history theory Reproductive strategies Puberty Sexual maturation Sexual behavior Parenting Evolutionary psychology Human development Bet-hedging Adaptive individual differences Extrinsic mortality Animal behavior 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to Jay Belsky and Steven Gangestad, for detailed comments on multiple drafts of this manuscript, and to Marco Del Giudice, for his thoughtful input to this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce J. Ellis
    • 1
  • Aurelio José Figueredo
    • 2
  • Barbara H. Brumbach
    • 3
  • Gabriel L. Schlomer
    • 1
  1. 1.John and Doris Norton School of Family and Consumer SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA

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