Human Nature

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 204–268 | Cite as

Fundamental Dimensions of Environmental Risk

The Impact of Harsh versus Unpredictable Environments on the Evolution and Development of Life History Strategies
  • Bruce J. Ellis
  • Aurelio José Figueredo
  • Barbara H. Brumbach
  • Gabriel L. Schlomer


The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH strategies; and that these influences depend on population densities and related levels of intraspecific competition and resource scarcity, on age schedules of mortality, on the sensitivity of morbidity-mortality to the organism’s resource-allocation decisions, and on the extent to which environmental fluctuations affect individuals versus populations over short versus long timescales. These interrelated factors operate at evolutionary and developmental levels and should be distinguished because they exert distinctive effects on LH traits and are hierarchically operative in terms of primacy of influence. Although converging lines of evidence support core assumptions of the theory, many questions remain unanswered. This review demonstrates the value of applying a multilevel evolutionary-developmental approach to the analysis of a central feature of human phenotypic variation: LH strategy.


Life history theory Reproductive strategies Puberty Sexual maturation Sexual behavior Parenting Evolutionary psychology Human development Bet-hedging Adaptive individual differences Extrinsic mortality Animal behavior 



We are indebted to Jay Belsky and Steven Gangestad, for detailed comments on multiple drafts of this manuscript, and to Marco Del Giudice, for his thoughtful input to this work.


  1. Abrams, P. A., & Rowe, L. (1996). The effects of predation on the age and size of maturity of prey. Evolution, 50, 1052–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, G. H., & Levins, R. (1994). The island syndrome in rodent populations. Quarterly Review of Biology, 69, 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler, N. E., Boyce, W. T., Chesney, M. A., Folkman, S., & Syme, S. L. (1993). Socioeconomic inequalities in health: No easy solution. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 3140–3145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrecht, C., & Teachman, J. D. (2003). Childhood living arrangements and the risk of premarital intercourse. Journal of Family Issues, 24, 867–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander, R. D. (1989). Evolution of the human psyche. In P. Mellars & C. Stringer (Eds.), The human revolution: Behavioral and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans, pp. 455–513. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Alexander, R. D. (1990). How did humans evolve? Reflections on the uniquely unique species. Museum of Zoology (Special Publication No. 1). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, R. M., Buckley, Y. M., & Marshall, D. J. (2008). Offspring size plasticity in response to intraspecific competition: An adaptive maternal effect across life-history stages. The American Naturalist, 171, 225–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrews, M. W., & Rosenblum, L. A. (1994). The development of affiliative and agonistic social patterns in differentially reared monkeys. Child Development, 65, 1398–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arendt, J. (1997). Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: An integration across taxa. Quarterly Review of Biology, 72, 149–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Austad, S. N. (1993). Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Journal of Zoology, London, 229, 695–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Badyaev, A. V. (2005). Stress-induced variation in evolution: From behavioural plasticity to genetic assimilation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 877–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Badyaev, A. V., & Foresman, K. R. (2004). Evolution of morphological integration, I: Functional units channel stress-induced variation in shrew mandibles. American Naturalist, 163, 869–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bailey, R. C., Jenike, M. R., Ellison, P. T., Bentley, G. R., Harrigan, A. M., & Peacock, N. R. (1992). The ecology of birth seasonality among agriculturalist in central Africa. Journal of Biosocial Science, 24, 393–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bashey, F. (2006). Cross-generational environmental effects and the evolution of offspring size in the Trinidadian guppy Poecilia reticulata. Evolution, 60, 348–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baumer, E. P., & South, S. J. (2001). Community effects on youth sexual activity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 540–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Belsky, J. (1999). Modern evolutionary theory and patterns of attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, pp. 141–161. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  17. Belsky, J., Steinberg, L., & Draper, P. (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bereczkei, T. (2007). Parental impacts on development: How proximate factors mediate adaptive plans. In R. I. M. Dunbar & L. Barrett (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology, pp. 255–271. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bereczkei, T., & Csanaky, A. (2001). Stressful family environment, mortality, and child socialization: Life-history strategies among adolescents and adults from unfavorable social circumstances. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 501–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bielby, J., Mace, G. M., Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P., Cardillo, M., Gittleman, J. L., Jones, K. E., et al. (2007). The fast-slow continuum in mammalian life history: An empirical reevaluation. The American Naturalist, 169, 748–757.Google Scholar
  21. Black, C., & DeBlassie, R. R. (1985). Adolescent pregnancy: Contributing factors, consequences, treatment, and plausible solutions. Adolescence, 20, 281–290.Google Scholar
  22. Blackburn, T. M. (1991). Evidence for a ‘fast-slow’ continuum of life-history traits among Parasitoid Hymenoptera. Functional Ecology, 5, 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boag, P. T. (1983). The heritability of external morphology in Darwin’s ground finches (Geospiza) on Island Daphne Major, Galapagos. Evolution, 37, 877–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bogin, B., Silva, M. I. V., & Rios, L. (2007). Life history trade-offs in human growth: Adapatation or pathology? American Journal of Human Biology, 19, 631–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Booth, D. T. (1998). Egg size, clutch size, and reproductive effort of the Australian broad-shelled river turtle, Chelodina expansa. Journal of Herpetology, 32, 592–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (2000). Optimizing offspring: The quantity-quality trade-off in agropastoral Kipsigis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 391–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Borowsky, R. L. (1987a). Agnostic behavior and social inhibition of maturation of fishes of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliida). Copeia, 3, 792–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Borowsky, R. L. (1987b). Genetic polymorphism in adult male size in Xiphophorus variatus (Atheriniformes: Poeciliida). Copeia, 3, 782–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boyce, M. S. (1981). Beaver life-history responses to exploitation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18, 749–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Boyce, M. S. (1984). Restitution of r- and K-selection as a model of density-dependent natural selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 15, 427–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Boyce, M. S., & Perrins, C. M. (1987). Optimizing great tit clutch size in a fluctuating environment. Ecology, 68, 142–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Breden, F., Scott, M., & Michel, E. (1987). Genetic differentiation for anti-predator behavior in the Trinidad guppy Poecilia reticulata. Animal Behavior, 35, 618–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown, J. H., & Sibly, R. M. (2006). Life-history evolution under a production constraint. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 47, 17595–17599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brumbach, B. H., Figueredo, A. J., & Ellis, B. J. (2009). Effects of harsh and unpredictable environments in adolescence on the development of life history strategies: A longitudinal test of an evolutionary model. Human Nature, 20, 25–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burger, R., Wagner, G. P., & Stettinger, F. (1989). How much heritable variation can be maintained in finite populations by mutation-selection? Evolution, 43, 1748–1766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Byrne, R. W., & Whiten, A. (eds). (1988). Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes and humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Calvin, W. H. (2002). A brain for all seasons: Human evolution and abrupt climate change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  38. Cameron, N. M., Champagne, F. A., Parent, C., Fish, E. W., Ozaki-Kuroda, K., & Meaney, M. J. (2005). The programming of individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in the rat through variations in maternal care. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 843–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Capaldi, D. M., Crosby, L., & Stoolmiller, M. (1996). Predicting the timing of first sexual intercourse for at-risk adolescent males. Child Development, 67, 344–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Carriere, Y., & Roff, D. A. (1995). The evolution of offspring size and number: A test of the Smith-Fretwell model in three species of crickets. Oecologia, 102, 389–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Case, T. J. (1978). On the evolution and adaptive significance of postnatal growth rates in the terrestrial vertebrates. Quarterly Review of Biology, 53, 243–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chakravarthy, M. V., & Booth, F. W. (2004). Eating, exercise, and “thrifty” genotypes: Connecting the dots toward an evolutionary understanding of modern chronic diseases. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chamberlain, P., Leve, L. D., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2007). Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for girls in the juvenile justice system: 2-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Charlesworth, B. (1980). Evolution in age structured populations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Charnov, E. L. (1993). Life history invariants. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Chen, C., Burton, M., Greenberger, E., & Dmitrieva, J. (1999). Population migration and the variation of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) allele frequencies around the globe. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 309–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Chen, E., Matthews, K. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Socioeconomic differences in children’s health: How and why do these relationships change with age? Psychological Bulletin, 128, 295–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chiappe, D., & MacDonald, K. B. (2005). The evolution of domain-general mechanisms in intelligence and learning. Journal of General Psychology, 132, 5–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chisholm, J. S. (1993). Death, hope, and sex: Life-history theory and the development of reproductive strategies. Current Anthropology, 34, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chisholm, J. S. (1996). The evolutionary ecology of attachment organization. Human Nature, 7, 1–38.Google Scholar
  51. Chisholm, J. S. (1999). Death, hope and sex: Steps to an evolutionary ecology of mind and morality. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Clarke, A. (1993). Reproductive trade-offs in caridean shrimps. Functional Ecology, 7, 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Clobert, J., Garland, T., & Barbault, R. (1998). The evolution of demographic tactics in lizards: A test of some hypotheses concerning life history evolution. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 11, 329–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Clutton-Brock, T. H., & Harvey, P. H. (1980). Primates, brains and ecology. Journal of Zoology, London, 190, 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Clutton-Brock, T. H., Guiness, F. E., & Albon, S. D. (1982). Red deer: Behavior and ecology of two sexes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  56. Coall, D. A., & Chisholm, J. S. (2003). Evolutionary perspectives on pregnancy: Maternal age at menarche and infant birth weight. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 1771–1781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cohen, D., Spear, S., Scribner, R., Kissinger, P., Mason, K., & Widgen, J. (2000). “Broken windows” and the risk of gonorrhea. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 230–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Coltman, D. W., O’Donoghuel, P., Jorgenson, J. T., & Hogg, J. T. (2003). Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting. Nature, 426, 655–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Coplan, J. D., Andrews, M. W., Rosenblum, L. A., Owens, M. J., Gorman, J. M., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1996). Increased cerebrospinal fluid CRF concentrations in adult non-human primates previously exposed to adverse experiences as infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 93, 1619–1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Coplan, J. D., Smith, E. L. P., Altemus, M., Scharf, B. A., Owens, M. J., Nemeroff, C. B., et al. (2001). Variable foraging demand rearing: Sustained elevations in cisternal cerebrospinal fluid corticotrophin-releasing factor concentrations in adult primates. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 50, 200–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Costello, E. J., Compton, S. N., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: A natural experiment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 2023–2029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Cristescu, M. (1975). Differential fertility depending on the age of puberty. Journal of Human Evolution, 4, 521–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Crognier, E. (1998). Is the reduction of birth intervals an efficient reproductive strategy in traditional Morocco? Annals of Human Biology, 25, 479–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Crosby, A. W. (2004). Ecological imperialism: The biological expansion of Europe, 900–1900 (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Crowder, K., & Teachman, J. (2004). Do residential conditions explain the relationship between living arrangements and adolescent behavior? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66, 721–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cunningham, M. J., Shahab, M., Grove, K. L., Scarlett, J. M., Plant, T. M., Cameron, J. L., et al. (2004). Galanin-like peptide as a possible link between metabolism and reproduction in the macaque. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 1760–1766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cunnington, D. C., & Brooks, R. J. (1996). Bet-hedging an eigenelasticity: A comparison of the life histories of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentine). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74, 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Daly, M., & Wilson, M. I. (1997). Crime and conflict: Homicide in evolutionary psychological perspective. Crime and Justice, 22, 251–300.Google Scholar
  69. Davis, J., & Were, D. (2008). A longitudinal study of the effects of uncertainty on reproductive behaviors. Human Nature, 19, 426–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Deaner, R. O., Barton, R. A., & Van Schaik, P. (2003). Primate brains and life histories: Renewing the connection. In P. M. Kappeler & M. E. Pereira (Eds.), Primate life histories and socioecology, pp. 233–265. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  71. Del Giudice, M. (2009). Sex, attachment, and the development of reproductive strategies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 1–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M. P. F., & Mul, D. (2001). Trends in pubertal development in Europe. Human Reproduction Update, 7, 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. de Ridder, C. M., Thijssen, J. H., Van ’t Veer, P., van Duuren, R., Bruning, P. F., Zonderland, M. L., et al. (1991). Dietary habits, sexual maturation, and plasma hormones in pubertal girls: A longitudinal study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, 805–813.Google Scholar
  74. DeMiguel, C., & Henneburg, M. (2001). Variation in hominid brain size: How much is due to method? Homo, 52, 3–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. den Bosch, H. A. J., & Bout, R. G. (1998). Relationships between maternal size, egg size, clutch size, and hatchling size in European lacertid lizards. Journal of Herpetology, 32, 410–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ding, Y. C., Chi, H. C., Grady, D. L., Morishima, A., Kidd, J. R., Kidd, K. K., et al. (2002). Evidence of positive selection acting at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 309–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Dingemanse, N. J., Both, C., Drent, P. J., & Tinbergen, J. M. (2004). Fitness consequences of avian personalities in a fluctuating environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 271, 847–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Doblhammer, G., & Oeppen, J. (2003). Reproduction and longevity among the British peerage: The effect of frailty and health selection. Proceedings the Royal Society B, 270, 1541–1547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Donaldson-Matasci, M. C., Lachmann, M., & Bergstrom, C. T. (2008). Phenotypic diversity as an adaptation to environmental uncertainty. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 10, 493–515.Google Scholar
  80. D’Onofrio, B. M., Turkheimer, E., Emery, R. E., Slutske, W. S., Heath, A. C., Madden, P. A., et al. (2006). A genetically informed study of processes underlying the association between parental martial instability and offspring adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 42, 486–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Draper, P., & Harpending, H. (1988). A sociobiological perspective on the development of human reproductive strategies. In K. B. MacDonald (Ed.), Sociobiological perspectives on human development, pp. 340–372. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6, 178–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Dunbar, R. I. M. (2003). The social brain: Mind, language, and society in evolutionary perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Dzikowski, R., Hulata, G., Harpaz, S., & Karplus, I. (2004). Inducible reproductive plasticity of the guppy Poecilia reticulata in response to predation cues. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology, 301A, 776–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ebstein, R. (2006). The molecular genetic architecture of human personality: Beyond self-report questionnaires. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 427–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Einum, S., & Fleming, I. A. (2004). Environmental unpredictability and offspring size: Conservative versus diversified bet-hedging. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 6, 443–455.Google Scholar
  87. Ellis, L. (1988). Criminal behavior and r/K selection: An extension of gene-based evolutionary theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 697–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ellis, B. J. (2004). Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 920–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ellis, B. J., & Essex, M. J. (2007). Family environments, adrenarche, and sexual maturation: A longitudinal test of a life history model. Child Development, 78, 1799–1817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ellis, B. J., McFadyen-Ketchum, S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1999). Quality of early family relationships and individual differences in the timing of pubertal maturation in girls: A longitudinal test of an evolutionary model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ellis, B. J., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Pettit, G. S., et al. (2003). Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Child Development, 74, 801–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ellis, B. J., Jackson, J. J., & Boyce, W. T. (2006). The stress response systems: Universality and adaptive individual differences. Developmental Review, 26, 175–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ellis, B. J., Schlomer, G. L., Tilley, E. H., & Butler, E. A. (2009). Impact of coercive paternal control on risky sexual behavior in daughters: A genetically and environmentally controlled sibling study. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO. April.Google Scholar
  94. Ellison, P. T. (2001). On fertile ground: A natural history of human reproduction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Ellison, P. T., Peacock, N. R., & Lager, C. (1989). Ecology and ovarian function among Lese women of Ituri Forest, Zaire. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 78, 519–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Elton, S. (2008). The environmental context of human evolutionary history in Eurasia and Africa. Journal of Anatomy, 212, 377–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Erikstad, K. E., Fauchald, P., Tveraa, T., & Steen, H. (1998). On the cost of reproduction in long-lived birds: The influence of environmental variability. Ecology, 79, 1781–1788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Eveleth, P. B., & Tanner, J. M. (1990). World-wide variation in human growth (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). Educational, psychosocial, and sexual outcomes of girls with conduct problems in early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 779–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Fernandez-Fernandez, R., Martini, A. C., Navarro, V. M., Castellano, J. M., Dieguez, C., Aguilar, E., et al. (2006). Novel signals for the integration of energy balance and reproduction. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 254–255, 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Festa-Bianchet, M. (2002). Exploitative wildlife management as a selective pressure for life history evolution of large mammals. In M. Festa-Bianchet & M. Apollonio (Eds.), Animal Behavior and Wildlife Conservation, pp. 191–208. Washington, DC: Island.Google Scholar
  102. Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., & Schneider, S. (2004). The heritability of life history strategy: The K-factor, covitality, and personality. Social Biology, 51, 121–143.Google Scholar
  103. Figueredo, A. J., Hammond, K. R., & McKiernan, E. C. (2006a). A Brunswikian evolutionary developmental theory of preparedness and plasticity. Intelligence, 34, 211–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Schneider, S., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., et al. (2006b). Consilience and life history theory: From genes to brain to reproductive strategy. Developmental Review, 26, 243–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Flinn, M. V., Geary, D. C., & Ward, C. V. (2005). Ecological dominance, social competition, and coalitionary arms races: Why humans evolved extraordinary intelligence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 10–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Fonseca, V. F., & Cabral, H. N. (2007). Are fish early growth and condition patterns related to life-history strategies? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 17, 545–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Foster, H., Hagan, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2008). Growing up fast: Stress exposure and subjective “weathering” in emerging adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 162–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Fox, C. W., & Rauter, C. M. (2003). Bet-hedging and the evolution of multiple mating. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 5, 273–286.Google Scholar
  109. Furstenberg, F. F,. Jr, Brooks-Gunn, J., & Chase-Lansdale, L. (1989). Teenage pregnancy and childbearing. American Psychologist, 44, 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Futuyma, D. J., & Moreno, G. (1988). The evolution of ecological specialization. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 20, 207–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Gamba, M., & Pralong, F. P. (2006). Control of GnRH neuronal activity by metabolic factors: The role of leptin and insulin. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 254–255, 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Gårdmark, A., Dieckmann, U., & Lundberg, P. (2003). Life-history evolution in harvested populations: The role of natural predation. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 5, 239–257.Google Scholar
  113. Garn, S. M., Pesick, S. D., & Petzold, A. S. (1986). The biology of teenage pregnancy. In J. B. Lancaster & B. A. Hamburg (Eds.), School-age pregnancy and parenthood, pp. 77–93. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  114. Gasser, M., Kaiser, M., Berrigan, D., & Stearns, S. C. (2000). Life history correlates of evolution under high and low adult mortality. Evolution, 54, 1260–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Geary, D. C. (2000). Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Genoud, M., & Perrin, N. (1994). Fecundity versus offspring size in the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 328–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Geronimus, A. T. (1987). On teenage childbearing and neonatal mortality in the United States. Population and Development Review, 13, 245–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Geronimus, A. T. (1992). The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: Evidence and speculations. Ethnicity and Disease, 2, 207–221.Google Scholar
  120. Gibbs, J. T. (1986). Psychosocial correlates for sexual attitudes and behaviors in urban early adolescent females: Implications for intervention. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 5, 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gillespie, J. (1973). Polymorphism in random environments. Theoretical Population Biology, 4, 193–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Gillespie, D. O. S., Russell, A. F., & Lummaa, V. (2008). When fecundity does not equal fitness: Evidence of an offspring quantity versus quality trade-off in pre-industrial humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275, 713–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Gliwicz, J. (1980). Island populations of rodents: Their organization and functioning. Biological Reviews, 55, 109–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Gosselin, L. A., & Rehak, R. (2007). Initial juvenile size and environmental severity: Influence of predation and wave exposure on hatching size in Nucella ostrina. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 339, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Gribbin, J., & Gribbin, M. (1990). Children of the ice: Climate and human origins. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  126. Gross, M. R. (1996). Alternative reproductive strategies and tactics: Diversity within sexes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 92–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hagen, E. H., Barrett, H. C., & Price, M. E. (2006). Do human parents face a quantity-quality tradeoff? Evidence from a Shuar community. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 130, 405–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Harpending, H., & Cochran, G. (2002). In our genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 10–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Harvey, P. H., & Zammuto, R. M. (1985). Patterns of mortality and age at first reproduction in natural populations of mammals. Nature, 315, 319–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Harvey, P. H., & Krebs, J. R. (1990). Comparing brains. Science, 249, 150–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hassell, M. P. (1975). Density-dependence in single-species populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 44, 283–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Hawkes, K. (2006). Slow life histories and human evolution. In K. Hawkes & R. R. Paine (Eds.), The evolution of human life history, pp. 95–126. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  133. Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J. F., & Blurton Jones, N. G. (2003). Human life histories: Primate trade-offs, grandmothering, socioecology, and the fossil record. In P. M. Kappeler & M. E. Pereira (Eds.), Primate Life Histories and Socioecology, pp. 204–227. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  134. Hedrick, P. W. (1986). Genetic polymorphism in heterogeneous environments. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17, 535–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hill, K., & Hurtado, M. (1996). Ache life history: The ecology and demography of a foraging people. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  136. Hill, K., & Kaplan, H. (1999). Life history traits in humans: Theory and empirical studies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 397–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hill, K., Hurtado, A. M., & Walker, R. S. (2007). High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: Implications for human evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 52, 443–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Hogan, D. P., & Kitagawa, E. M. (1985). The impact of social status, family structure, and neighborhood on the fertility of black adolescents. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 825–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Holliday, R. (1995). Understanding ageing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hopper, K. R. (1999). Risk-spreading and bet-hedging in insect population biology. Annual Review of Entomology, 44, 535–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Hurt, L. S., Ronsmans, C., & Thomas, S. L. (2006). The effect of number of births on women’s mortality: Systematic review of the evidence for women who have completed their childbearing. Population Studies, 60, 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Hurtado, A. M., & Hill, K. R. (1990). Seasonality in a foraging society: Variation in diet, work effort, fertility and the sexual division of labor among the Hiwi of Venezuela. Journal of Anthropological Research, 46, 293–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Jablonka, E., & Lamb, M. J. (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: Genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the history of life. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  144. Jennions, M., & Telford, S. (2002). Life-history phenotypes in populations of Brachyrhaphis episcopi (Poeciliidae) with different predator communities. Oecologia, 132, 44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Johnson, J. B., & Belk, M. C. (2001). Predation environment predicts divergent life-history phenotypes among populations of the livebearing fish Brachyraphis rhabdophora. Oecologia, 126, 142–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kaplan, H. S., & Robson, A. J. (2002). The emergence of humans: The coevolution of intelligence and longevity with intergenerational transfers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 10221–10226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kaplan, H. S., & Lancaster, J. B. (2003). An evolutionary and ecological analysis of human fertility, mating patterns, and parental investment. In K. W. Wachter & R. A. Bulatao (Eds.), Offspring: Human fertility behavior in biodemographic perspective, pp. 170–223. Washington, DC: National Academies.Google Scholar
  148. Kaplan, H. S., & Gangestad, S. W. (2005). Life history theory and evolutionary psychology. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology, pp. 68–95. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  149. Kaplan, H. S., Hill, K., Lancaster, J. B., & Hurtado, A. M. (2000). A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 156–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Kappeler, P. M., Pereira, M. E., & Van Schaik, C. P. (2003). Primate life histories and socioecology. In P. M. Kappeler & M. E. Pereira (Eds.), Primate life histories and socioecology, pp. 1–24. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  151. Kawecki, T. J. (1993). Age and size at maturity in a patchy environment: Fitness maximization versus evolutionary stability. Oikos, 66, 309–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Kerr, D. C. R., Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2009). Pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls in two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. (in press).Google Scholar
  153. Kirk, K. M., Blomberg, S. P., Duffy, D. L., Heath, A. C., Owens, I. P. F., & Martin, N. G. (2001). Natural selection and quantitative genetics of life-history traits in Western women: A twin study. Evolution, 55, 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Koops, M. A., Hutchings, J. A., & Adams, B. K. (2003). Environmental predictability and the cost of imperfect information: Influences on offspring size and variability. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 5, 29–42.Google Scholar
  155. Korpimaki, E., & Krebs, C. J. (1996). Predation and population cycles of small mammals: A reassessment of the predation hypothesis. BioScience, 46, 754–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kotchick, B. A., Shaffer, A., Forehand, R., & Miller, K. S. (2001). Adolescent sexual risk behavior: A multi-system perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 493–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kraus, C., Thomson, D. L., Kunkele, J., & Trillmich, F. (2005). Living slow and dying young? Life history strategy and age-specific survival rates in a precocial small mammal. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Kunstadter, P., Kunstadter, S. L., Leepreecha, P., Podhisita, C., Laoyang, M., Thao, C. S., et al. (1992). Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: Ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand. Human Biology, 64, 821–841.Google Scholar
  159. Kuzawa, C. W. (2005). Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: Are fetal cues reliable predictors of future nutritional environments? American Journal of Human Biology, 17, 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Kuzawa, C. W. (2008). The developmental origins of adult health: intergenerational inertia in adaptation and disease. In W. R. Trevathan, E. O. Smith & J. J. McKenna (Eds.), Evolutionary Medicine and Health, pp. 325–349. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Lauritsen, J. L. (1994). Explaining race and gender differences in adolescent sexual behavior. Social Forces, 72, 859–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Law, R. (2000). Fishing, selection, and phenotypic evolution. Journal of Marine Science, 57, 659–668.Google Scholar
  163. Leimar, O. (2005). The evolution of phenotypic polymorphism: Randomized strategies versus evolutionary branching. American Naturalist, 165, 669–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Leprince, D. J., & Foil, L. D. (1993). Relationships among body size, blood meal size, egg volume, and egg production of Tabanus fuscicostatus (Diptera: Tabanidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 30, 865–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). Female juvenile offenders: Defining an early-onset pathway for delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13, 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Leve, L. D., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2005). Intervention outcomes for girls referred from juvenile justice: Effects on delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1181–1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Levins, R., & Adler, G. H. (1993). Differential diagnostics of island rodents. Coenoses, 8, 131–139.Google Scholar
  168. Lips, K. R. (2001). Reproductive trade-offs and bet-hedging in Hyla calypso, a neotropical treefrog. Oecologia, 128, 509–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Low, B. S., Simon, C. P., & Anderson, K. G. (2002). An evolutionary ecological perspective on demographic transitions: Modeling multiple currencies. American Journal of Human Biology, 14, 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Low, B. S., Hazel, A., Parker, N., & Welch, K. B. (2008). Influences on women’s reproductive lives: Unexpected ecological underpinnings. Cross-Cultural Research, 42, 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lumsden, C. J., & Wilson, E. O. (1981). Genes, mind and culture: The coevolutionary process. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  172. Luster, T., & Mittelstaedt, M. (1993). Adolescent mothers. In T. Luster & L. Okagaki (Eds.), Parenting: An ecological perspective, pp. 69–99. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  173. Lynn, R. (1991). The evolution of race differences in intelligence. Mankind Quarterly, 32, 99–173.Google Scholar
  174. MacArthur, R. H., & Wilson, E. O. (1967). The theory of island biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  175. MacDonald, K. B. (1995). Evolution, the Five Factor Model, and levels of personality. Journal of Personality, 63, 525–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. MacDonald, K. B. (1999). An evolutionary perspective on human fertility. Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. Special Issue: Perspectives on fertility and population size, 21, 223–246.Google Scholar
  177. MacDonald, K. B., & Hershberger, S. L. (2005). Theoretical issues in the study of evolution and development. In R. L. Burgess & K. MacDonald (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on human development (second ed.), pp. 21–72. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Marlowe, F. W. (2003). The mating system of foragers in the standard cross-cultural sample. Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science, 37, 282–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. McLloyd, V. (1988). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Mendle, J., Turkheimer, E., D’Onofrio, B. M., Lynch, S. K., Emery, R. E., Slutske, W. S., et al. (2006). Family structure and age at menarche: A children-of-twins approach. Developmental Psychology, 42, 533–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Meyer, F., Moisan, J., Marcoux, D., & Bouchard, C. (1990). Dietary and physical determinants of menarche. Epidemiology, 1, 377–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Migliano, A. B., Vinicius, L., & Lahr, M. M. (2007). Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 104, 20216–20219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Miller, B. C., Benson, B., & Galbraith, K. A. (2001). Family relationships and adolescent pregnancy risk: A research synthesis. Developmental Review, 21, 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Mueller, L. D. (1997). Theoretical and empirical examination of density-dependent selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, 269–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Mul, D., Oostdijk, W., & Drop, S. L. S. (2002). Early puberty in adopted children. Hormone Research, 57, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Murphy, G. I. (1968). Pattern in life history and the environment. American Naturalist, 102, 391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Nepomnaschy, P. A., Welch, K. B., McConnell, D. S., Low, B. S., Strassmann, B. I., & England, B. G. (2006). Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 103, 3938–3942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Nicholson, A. J. (1954). An outline of the dynamics of animal populations. Australian Journal of Zoology, 2, 9–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Oli, M. K. (2004). The fast-slow continuum and mammalian life-history patterns: An empirical evaluation. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 449–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Palkovacs, E. P. (2003). Explaining adaptive shifts in body size on islands: A life history approach. OIKOS, 103, 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Parent, A. S., Teilmann, G., Juul, A., Skakkebaek, N. E., Toppari, J., & Bourguignon, J.-P. (2003). The timing of normal puberty and age limits of sexual precocity: Variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration. Endocrine Reviews, 24, 668–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Parker, S. T., & McKinney, M. L. (1999). The evolution of cognitive development in monkeys, apes, and humans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  193. Penke, L., Denissen, J. J. A., & Miller, G. F. (2007). The evolutionary genetics of personality. European Journal of Personality, 21, 549–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Petit, J., Jouzel, J., Raynaud, D., Barkov, N., Barnola, J. M., Basile, I., et al. (1999). Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica. Nature, 399, 429–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Pettay, J. E., Kruuk, L. E. B., Jokela, J., & Lummaa, V. (2005). Heritability and genetic constraints of life-history trait evolution in pre-industrial humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 102, 2838–2843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Philippi, T., & Seger, J. (1989). Hedging one’s evolutionary bets, revisited. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Pianka, E. R. (1970). On r- and K-selection. American Naturalist, 104, 592–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Potts, R. (1998). Variability selection in Hominid evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 7, 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Pratt, H. (1993). Herons and egrets of Audubon Canyon Ranch. Self-published, available at Audubon Canyon Ranch, Stinson Beach, CA 94970.Google Scholar
  200. Prentice, A. M., Cole, T. J., Foord, F. A., Lamb, W. H., & Whitehead, R. G. (1987). Increased birthweight after prenatal dietary supplementation of rural African women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 912–925.Google Scholar
  201. Promislow, D. E. L., & Harvey, P. H. (1990). Living fast and dying young: A comparative analysis of life-history variation among mammals. Journal of Zoology, London, 220, 417–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Quinlan, R. J. (2007). Human parental effort and environmental risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Raia, P., & Meiri, S. (2006). The island rule in large mammals: Paleontology meets ecology. Evolution, 60, 1731–1742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Raia, P., Barbera, C., & Conte, M. (2003). The fast life of a dwarfed giant. Evolutionary Ecology, 17, 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Raley, R. K., & Wildsmith, E. (2004). Cohabitation and children’s family instability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66, 210–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Ramirez-Valles, J., Zimmerman, M. A., & Newcomb, M. D. (1998). Sexual risk behavior among youth: Modeling the influence of prosocial activities and socioeconomic factors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39, 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Remeš, V., & Martin, T. E. (2002). Environmental influences on the evolution of growth and developmental rates in passerines. Evolution, 56, 2505–2518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Reznick, D. N. (1982). The impact of predation on life history evolution in Trinidadian guppies: Genetic basis of observed life history patterns. Evolution, 36(1236–1), 250.Google Scholar
  209. Reznick, D. N., & Ghalambor, C. K. (2005). Selection in nature: Experimental manipulations of natural populations. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 45, 456–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Reznick, D. N., & Shaw, F. H. (1997). Evaluation of the rate of evolution in natural populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Science, 275, 1934–1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Reznick, D. N., Rodd, F. H., & Cardenas, M. (1996). Life-history evolution in guppies (Poecilia reticulata), 4: Parallelism in life-history phenotypes. American Naturalist, 147, 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Reznick, D. N., Bryant, M. J., & Bashey, F. (2002). r- and K-selection revisited: The role of population regulation in life-history evolution. Ecology, 83, 1509–1520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Rhen, T., & Crews, D. (2002). Variation in reproductive behaviour within a sex: Neural systems and endocrine activation. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 14, 517–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Rocha, E. P. C., Matic, I., & Taddei, F. (2002). Over-representation of repeats in stress response genes: A strategy to increase versatility under stressful conditions? Nucleic Acids Research, 30, 1886–1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Rodd, F. H., Reznick, D. N., & Sokolowski, M. B. (1997). Phenotypic plasticity in the life history traits of guppies: Responses to social environment. Ecology, 78, 419–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Rodgers, J. L., Hughes, K., Kohler, H., Christensen, K., Doughty, D., Rowe, D. C., et al. (2001a). Genetic influence helps explain variation in human fertility: Evidence from recent behavioral and molecular genetic studies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rodgers, J. L., Kohler, H., Kyvik, K. O., & Christensen, K. (2001b). Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility: Findings from a contemporary Danish twin study. Demography, 38, 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Rodseth, L. T., & Novak, S. A. (2000). The social modes of men: Toward an ecological model of human male relationships. Human Nature, 11, 335–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Roff, D. (1992). The evolution of life histories: Theory and analysis. New York: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  220. Roff, D. (2002). Life history evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  221. Rogers, A. R. (1992). Resources and population dynamics. In E. Smith & B. Winterhalder (Eds.), Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior, pp. 375–402. Hawthorne, NY: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  222. Rosenblum, L. A., & Paully, G. S. (1984). The effects of varying environmental demands on maternal and infant behavior. Child Development, 55, 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Rosenblum, L. A., & Andrews, M. W. (1994). Influences of environmental demand on maternal behavior and infant development. Acta Pædiatica Supplimentum, 397, 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Ross, C. (1988). The intrinsic rate of natural increase and reproductive effort in primates. Journal of Zoology, 214, 199–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Ross, L. T., & Hill, E. M. (2002). Childhood unpredictability, schemas for unpredictability, and risk taking. Social Behavior and Personality, 30, 453–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Rowe, D. C. (2002). On genetic variation in menarche and age at first sexual intercourse: A critique of the Belsky-Draper hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Rushton, J. P. (1985). Differential K theory: The sociobiology of individual and group differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 441–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Rushton, J. P. (1995). Race, evolution, and behavior: A life history perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  229. Rushton, J. P. (2004). Placing intelligence into an evolutionary framework on how g fits in the r-K matrix of life-history traits, including longevity. Intelligence, 32, 321–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Ryan, M. J., & Causey, B. A. (1989). “Alternative” mating behavior in the swordtails Xiphophorus nigrensis and Xiphophorus pygmaeus (Pisces: Poeciliida). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 24, 341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Ryan, M. J., Pease, C. J., & Morris, M. R. (1992). A genetic polymorphism in the swordtail Xiphophorus nigrensis: Testing the predictions of equal fitness. American Naturalist, 139, 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Saether, B., & Bakke, O. (2000). Avian life history variation and contribution of demographic traits to the population growth rate. Ecology, 81(3), 642–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Sasaki, A., & Ellner, S. (1995). The evolutionarily stable phenotype distribution in a random environment. Evolution, 49, 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Scaramella, L. V., Conger, R. D., Simons, L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1998). Predicting risk for pregnancy by late adolescence: A social contextual perspective. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1233–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Schultz, D. L. (1989). The evolution of phenotypic variance with iteroparity. Evolution, 43, 473–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Serbin, L. A., Peters, P. L., McAffer, V. J., & Schwartzman, A. E. (1991). Childhood aggression and withdrawal as predictors of adolescent pregnancy, early parenthood, and environmental risk for the next generation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 23, 318–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Shanley, D. P., & Kirkwood, T. B. L. (2000). Calorie restriction and aging: A life-history analysis. Evolution, 54, 740–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Simons, A. M. (2007). Selection for increased allocation to offspring number under environmental unpredictability. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20, 2072–2074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Sinervo, B., Svensson, E., & Comendant, T. (2000). Density cycles and an offspring quantity and quality game driven by natural selection. Nature, 406, 985–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. South, S. J., Haynie, D. L., & Bose, S. (2005). Residential mobility and the onset of adolescent sexual activity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 67, 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Stack, S. (1994). Effect of geographic mobility on premarital sex. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 204–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Stearns, S. (1992). The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  243. Strassmann, B. I., & Gillespie, B. (2002). Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 269, 553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Sucoff, C. A., & Upchurch, D. M. (1998). Neighborhood context and the risk of childbearing among metropolitan-area black adolescents. American Sociological Review, 63, 571–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Surbey, M. K. (1998). Parent and offspring strategies in the transition at adolescence. Human Nature, 9, 67–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Syamala, T. S. (2001). Relationship between infant and child mortality and fertility: An enquiry into Goan women. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 68, 1111–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Tainaka, K., Yoshimura, J., & Rosenzweig, M. L. (2007). Do male orangutans play a hawk-dove game? Evolutionary Ecology Research, 9, 1043–1049.Google Scholar
  248. Tanner, J. M. (1990). Foetus into man (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  249. Teilmann, G., Pedersen, C. B., Skakkebæk, N. E., & Jensen, T. K. (2006). Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark. Pediatrics, 118, 391–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Tither, J. M., & Ellis, B. J. (2008). Impact of fathers on daughters’ age at menarche: A genetically- and environmentally-controlled sibling study. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1409–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Underwood, M. K., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Coie, J. D. (1996). Childhood peer sociometric status and aggression as predictors of adolescent childbearing. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 201–223.Google Scholar
  252. Upchurch, D. M., Aneshensel, C. S., Sucoff, C. A., & Levy-Storms, L. (1999). Neighborhood and family contexts of adolescent sexual activity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 920–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Vigil, J. M., Geary, D. C., & Byrd-Craven, J. (2005). A life history assessment of early childhood sexual abuse in women. Developmental Psychology, 41, 553–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Vining, D. R. (1986). Social versus reproductive success: The central theoretical problem of sociobiology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 167–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Walker, R. S., & Hamilton, M. J. (2008). Life-history consequences of density dependence and the evolution of human body size. Current Anthropology, 49, 115–122.Google Scholar
  256. Walker, R., Burger, O., Wagner, J., & Von Rueden, C. R. (2006a). Evolution of brain size and juvenile periods in primates. Journal of Human Evolution, 51, 480–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Walker, R., Gurven, M., Hill, K., Migliano, A., Chagnon, N., De Souza, R., et al. (2006b). Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies. American Journal of Human Biology, 18, 295–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Wallace, B. (1975). Hard and soft selection revisited. Evolution, 29, 465–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Wallace, B. (1981). Basic population genetics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  260. Wang, E., Ding, Y. C., Flodman, P., Kidd, J. R., Kidd, K. K., Grady, D. L., et al. (2004). The genetic architecture of selection at the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene locus. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 931–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Ware, D. M. (1982). Power and evolutionary fitness of teleosts. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 39, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Warner, R. R. (1984). Deferred reproduction as a response to sexual selection in a coral reef fish: A test of the life historical consequences. Evolution, 38, 148–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. West-Eberhard, M. J. (2003). Developmental plasticity and evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  264. Williamson, M. (1981). Island populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  265. Wilson, D. S. (1994). Adaptive genetic variation and human evolutionary psychology. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1997). Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighborhoods. British Medical Journal, 314, 1271–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Woodward, L., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2001). Risk factors and life processes associated with teenage pregnancy: Results of a prospective study form birth to 20 years. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 1170–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Worthman, C. M. (1999). Evolutionary perspectives on the onset of puberty. In W. Trevathan, E. O. Smith & J. J. McKenna (Eds.), Evolutionary medicine, pp. 135–163. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  269. Worthman, C. M. (2003). Energetics, sociality, and human reproduction: Life history theory in real life. In K. W. Wachter & R. A. Bulatao (Eds.), Offspring: Human fertility behavior in biodemographic perspective, pp. 289–321. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  270. Worthman, C. M., & Kuzara, J. (2005). Life history and the early origins of health differentials. American Journal of Human Biology, 17, 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Wu, L. L. (1996). Effects of family instability, income, and income instability on the risk of premarital birth. American Sociological Review, 61, 386–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wu, L. L., & Martinson, B. C. (1993). Family structure and the risk of premarital birth. American Sociological Review, 58, 210–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Yasui, Y. (2001). Female multiple mating as a genetic bet-hedging strategy when mate choice criteria are unreliable. Ecological Research, 16, 605–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce J. Ellis
    • 1
  • Aurelio José Figueredo
    • 2
  • Barbara H. Brumbach
    • 3
  • Gabriel L. Schlomer
    • 1
  1. 1.John and Doris Norton School of Family and Consumer SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA

Personalised recommendations