Human Nature

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 91–127 | Cite as

Why aren’t we all hutterites?

Costly signaling theory and religious behavior
Article

Abstract

In this paper I explore the psychology of ritual performance and present a simple graphical model that clarifies several issues in William Irons’s theory of religion as a “hard-to-fake” sign of commitment. Irons posits that religious behaviors or rituals serve as costly signals of an individual’s commitment to a religious group. Increased commitment among members of a religious group may facilitate intra-group cooperation, which is argued to be the primary adaptive benefit of religion. Here I propose a proximate explanation for how individuals are able to pay the short-term costs of ritual performance to achieve the long-term fitness benefits offered by religious groups. The model addresses three significant problems raised by Irons’s theory. First, the model explains why potential free-riders do not join religious groups even when there are significant net benefits that members of religious groups can achieve. Second, the model clarifies how costly a ritual must be to achieve stability and prevent potential free-riders from joining the religious group. Third, the model suggests why religious groups may require adherents to perform private rituals that are not observed by others. Several hypotheses generated from the model are also discussed.

Key words

Costly signaling theory Evolution of religion Intra-group cooperation Ritual 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Afshar, H. 1987 Women, Marriage and State in Iran. In Women, State and Ideology, H. Afshar, ed. Pp. 70–89. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. 1988 Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Chicago: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, R. 1987 The Biology of Moral Systems. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  4. Allport, G. 1966 The Religious Context of Prejudice. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 5:447–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allport, G., and J. Ross 1967 Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5:432–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Appel, W. 1983 Cults in America: Programmed for Paradise. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  7. Aronson, E. 1997 The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: The Evolution and Vicissitudes of an Idea. In The Message of Social Psychology, C. McGarty and S. Alexander, eds. Pp. 20–35. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. Aronson, E., and J. Mills 1959 The Effect of Severity of Initiation on Liking for a Group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59:177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asch, S. 1951 Effects of Group Pressure upon the Modification and Distortion of Judgment. In Groups, Leadership, and Men, H. Guetzkow, ed. Pp. 177–190. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Press.Google Scholar
  10. Austin, J. 1998 Zen and the Brain. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bainbridge, W. 1984 The Decline of the Shakers: Evidence from the United States Census. Communal Societies 4:19–34.Google Scholar
  12. Balch, R., G. Farnsworth, and S. Wilkins 1983 When the Bombs Drop: Reactions to Disconfirmed Prophecy in a Millennial Sect. Sociological Perspectives 26:137–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Balch, R., J. Domitrovich, B. Mahnke, and V. Morrison 1997 Fifteen Years of Failed Prophecy. In Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem, T. Robbins and S. Palmer, eds. Pp. 73–90. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Baron, S. 1952 The Social and Religious History of the Jews, vol. 1, second ed. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Batson, C., and W. Ventis 1982 The Religious Experience: A Social Psychological Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bem, D. 1965 An Experimental Analysis of Self-persuasion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 1:199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 1966 Inducing Beliefs in False Confessions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3:707–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 1972 Self-perception Theory. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 6, L. Berkowitz, ed., Pp. 1–62. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Berman, E. 2000 Sect, Subsidy and Sacrifice: An Economist’s View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews. Quarterly Journal of Economics 115:905–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boyd, R., and P. Richerson 1992 Punishment Allows the Evolution of Cooperation (Or Anything Else) in Sizable Groups. Ethology and Sociobiology 13:171–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boyer, P. 2001 Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  22. Caplan, L. 1987 Introduction. In Studies in Religious Fundamentalism, L. Caplan, ed. Pp. 1–24. Albany: State University of New York Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chandler, C., and J. Connell 1987 Children’s Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Internalized Motivation: A Developmental Study of Children’s Reasons for Liked and Disliked Behaviors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 5:357–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cialdini, R. 2001 Influence: Science and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  25. Cioffi, D., and R. Garner 1996 On Doing the Decision: The Effects of Active Versus Passive Choice on Commitment and Self-perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22:133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Collins, J. 1991 The Cult Experience. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  27. Cook, R. 1954 The North American Hutterites: A Study in Human Multiplication. Population Bulletin 10:97–107.Google Scholar
  28. Cronk, L. 1994a Evolutionary Theories of Morality and the Manipulative Use of Signals. Zygon 29:81–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 1994b Group Selection’s New Clothes. Behavior and Brain Sciences 17:615–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 1999 The Complex Whole: Culture and the Evolution of Human Behavior. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  31. Crook, J. 1970 The Socioecology of Primates. In Social Behavior in Birds and Mammals, J. Crook, ed. Pp. 103–166. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. d’Aquili, E., and A. Newberg 1999 The Mystical Mind. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  33. Dawes, R. 1980 Social Dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology 31:169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Deci, E., and R. Ryan 1985 Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. de Waal, F. 1996 Good Natured. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Donahue, M. 1985a Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religiousness: Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48:400–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 1985b Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religiousness: The Empirical Research. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 24:418–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Durkheim, E. 1995 [1912] The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  39. Eaton, J., and A. Mayer 1953 The Social Biology of Very High Fertility among the Hutterites. The Demography of a Unique Population. Human Biology 26:206–264.Google Scholar
  40. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 1970 Ethology: The Biology of Behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  41. Ensminger, J. 1997 Transaction Costs and Islam: Explaining Conversion in Africa. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 153:4–29.Google Scholar
  42. Epstein, L. 1994 Why the Jewish People Should Welcome Converts. Judaism 43:302–312.Google Scholar
  43. Fazio, R. 1987 Self-perception Theory: A Current Perspective. In Social Influence: The Ontario Symposium, vol. 5, M. Zanna, J. Olson, and C. Herman, eds. Pp. 129–150. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  44. Fazio, R., M. Zanna, and J. Cooper 1977 Dissonance and Self-perception: An Integrative View of Each Theory’s Proper Domain of Application. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13:464–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Festinger, L. 1954 A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations 7:117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 1957 A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. 1964 Conflict, Decision and Dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Festinger, L., H. Reicken, and S. Schachter 1956 When Prophecy Fails. New York: Harper and Row.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Finke, R., and R. Stark 1988 Religious Economies and Sacred Canopies: Religious Mobilization in American Cities, 1906. American Sociological Review 53:41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Finke, R., A. Guest, and R. Stark 1996 Mobilizing Local Religious Markets: Religious Pluralism in the Empire State: 1805–1865. American Sociological Review 61:203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Firth, R. 1981 Spiritual Aroma: Religion and Politics. American Anthropologist 83:582–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fishbein, M., and I. Ajzen 1975 Beliefs, Attitudes, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  53. Frank, R. H. 1988 Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  54. Freedman, J. 1965 Long-term Behavioral Effects of Cognitive Dissonance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 1:103–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Freedman, J., and S. Fraser 1966 Compliance without Pressure: The Foot-in-the-Door Technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4:195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gager, J. 1975 Kingdom and Community. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  57. Galanter, M. 1999 Cults: Faith, Healing, and Coercion. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Geertz, C. 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  59. Gerard, H., and G. Mathewson 1966 The Effects of Severity of Initiation on Liking for a Group: A Replication. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2:278–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grafen, A. 1990 Biological Signals as Handicaps. Journal of Theoretical Biology 144:517–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hamberg, E., and T. Petersson 1994 The Religious Market: Denominational Competition and Religious Participation in Contemporary Sweden. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion 33:205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hames, R. 1992 Time Allocation. In Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior, E. A. Smith and B. Winterhalder, eds. Pp. 203–235. New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  63. Hayden, B. 1987 Alliances and Ritual Ecstasy: Human Responses to Resource Stress. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 26:81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hefner, P. 1993 The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture, and Religion. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  65. Heilman, S. 1992 Defenders of the Faith. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  66. Heschel, A. 1955 God in Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  67. Hostetler, J. 1997 Hutterite Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Huxley, J. 1923 Courtship Activities in the Red-Throated Diver (Colymbus stellatus Pontopp), Together with a Discussion of the Evolution of Courtship in Birds. Journal of the Linnean Society of London: Zoology 53:253–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Iannaccone, L. 1991 The Consequences of Religious Market Structure: Adam Smith and Economics of Religion. Rationality and Society 29:297–314.Google Scholar
  70. 1992 Sacrifice and Stigma: Reducing Free-riding in Cults, Communes, and Other Collectives. Journal of Political Economy 100:271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 1994 Why Strict Churches Are Strong. American Journal of Sociology 99:1180–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Irons, W. 1996a In Our Own Self-image: The Evolution of Morality, Deception, and Religion. Skeptic 4:50–61.Google Scholar
  73. 1996b Morality as an Evolved Adaptation. In Investigating the Biological Foundations of Morality, J. P. Hurd, ed. Pp. 1–34. Lewiston: Edwin Mellon Press.Google Scholar
  74. 1996c Morality, Religion, and Human Nature. In Religion and Science: History, Method, and Dialogue, W. Richardson and W. Wildman, eds. Pp. 375–399. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  75. 2001 Religion as a Hard-to-Fake Sign of Commitment. In Evolution and the Capacity for Commitment, R. Nesse, ed. Pp. 292–309. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  76. James, W. 1961 [1903] The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: Collier Books.Google Scholar
  77. Janis, I., and B. King 1954 The Influence of Role Playing on Opinion Change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 49:211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Janzen, R. 1999 The Prairie People: Forgotten Anabaptists. London: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  79. Johnstone, R. 1997 The Evolution of Animal Signals. In Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, fourth ed., J. Krebs and N. Davies, eds. Pp. 155–178. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  80. 1998 Game Theory and Communication. In Game Theory and Animal Behavior, L. Dugatkin and H. Reeve, eds. Pp. 94–117. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Kaplan, L. 1992 Introduction. In Fundamentalism in Comparative Perspective, L. Kaplan, ed. Pp. 3–14. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  82. Katz, L., ed. 2000 Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. Exeter, UK: Imprint Academic.Google Scholar
  83. Kelley, D. 1972 Why Conservative Churches Are Growing. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  84. Kelman, H. 1958 Compliance, Identification, and Internalization: Three Processes of Attitude Change. Journal of Conflict Resolution 2:51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Klass, M. 1995 Ordered Universes: Approaches to the Anthropology of Religion. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  86. Latane, B. 1997 Dynamic Social Impact: The Societal Consequences of Human Interaction. In The Message of Social Psychology, C. McGarty and S. Alexander, eds. Pp. 20–35. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  87. Landau, D. 1993 Piety and Power: The World of Jewish Fundamentalism. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  88. Laughlin, C., and J. McManus 1979 Mammalian Ritual. In The Spectrum of Ritual, E. d’Aquili, C. Laughlin, J. McManus, eds. Pp. 80–116. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Lawrence, B. 1989 Defenders of God. San Francisco: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  90. Leach, E. 1954 Political Systems of Highland Burma. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  91. 1976 Culture and Communication: The Logic by Which Symbols Are Connected. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Levin, J. 1994 Religion and Health: Is There an Association, Is it Valid, Is it Causal? Social Science Medicine 38:1475–1482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Levin, M. 1986 Journey to Tradition. Hoboken: Ktav.Google Scholar
  94. Marty, M. 1992 Fundamentals of Fundamentalism. In Fundamentalism in Comparative Perspective, L. Kaplan, ed. Pp. 15–23. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  95. Marty, M., and R. Appleby 1991 Conclusion: An Interim Report on a Hypothetical Family. In Fundamentalisms Observed, M. Marty and R. S. Appleby, eds. Pp. 814–842. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  96. Moghadam, V. 1992 Fundamentalism and the Woman Question in Afghanistan. In Fundamentalism in Comparative Perspective, L. Kaplan, ed. Pp. 126–151. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  97. Murray, J. 1995a Determinants of Membership Levels and Duration in a Shaker Commune, 1780–1880. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34:35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 1995b Human Capital in Religious Communes: Literacy and Selection of Nineteenth-Century Shakers. Explorations in Economic History 32:217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Olson, M. 1965 The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  100. O’neill, P., and L. Petrinovich 1998 A Preliminary Cross-Cultural Study of Moral Intuitions. Evolution and Human Behavior 19:349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pesternak, V. 1988 Recruitment and Commitment. Society 25:48–51.Google Scholar
  102. Peter, K. 1987 The Dynamics of Hutterite Society. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.Google Scholar
  103. Radcliffe-Brown, A. 1952 Structure and Function in Primitive Society. London: Cohen and West.Google Scholar
  104. Rappaport, R. 1968 Pigs for the Ancestors. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  105. 1979 The Obvious Aspects of Ritual. In Ecology, Meaning and Religion, R. Rappaport, ed. Pp. 173–221. Richmond, California: North Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  106. 1999 Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Reynolds, V., and R. Tanner 1995 The Social Ecology of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Richerson, P., and R. Boyd 1987 The Role of Evolved Predispositions in Cultural Evolution, or Human Sociobiology Meets Pascal’s Wager. Ethology and Sociobiology 10:195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Robbins, T. 1988 Cults, Converts, and Charisma: The Sociology of New Religious Movements. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  110. Robbins, T., and D. Anthony 1982 Religious Movements and the Brainwashing Issue. In Violence and Religious Commitment, K. Levi, ed. Pp. 133–138. University Park: Penn State University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Roof, W., and W. McKinney 1987 American Mainline Religion: Its Changing Shape and Future. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Rowe, C. 1999 Receiver Psychology and the Evolution of Multicomponent Signals. Animal Behaviour 58:921–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schelling, T. 1960 The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Shaffir, W. 1998 Hasidic Jews: Social Boundaries and Institutional Development as Mechanisms of Identity Control. In Jewish Survival: The Identity Problem at the Close of the Twentieth Century, Ernest Krausz and Gitta Tulea, eds. Pp. 169–187. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction.Google Scholar
  115. Sherif, M. 1958 Group Influences upon the Formation of Norms and Attitudes. In Readings in Social Psychology, T. Newcomb and E. Hartley, eds. Pp. 219–232. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  116. Singer, M. 1995 Cults in Our Midst. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  117. Smith, E. 2000 Three Styles in the Evolutionary Analysis of Human Behavior. In Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, L. Cronk, N. Chagnon, and W. Irons, eds. Pp. 27–46. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  118. Smith, H. 1991 The World’s Religions. San Francisco: Harper.Google Scholar
  119. Sosis, R. 2000 Religion and Intra-group Cooperation: Preliminary Results of a Comparative Analysis of Utopian Communities. Cross-Cultural Research 34: 70–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sosis, R., and E. Bressler 2003 Cooperation and Commune Longevity: A Test of the Costly Signaling Theory of Religion. Cross-Cultural Research, 37:211–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sosis, R., and B. Ruffle 2003 Religious Ritual and Cooperation: Testing for a Relationship on Israeli Religious and Secular Kibbutzim. Current Anthropology, in press.Google Scholar
  122. Spiro, M. 1966 Religion: Problems of Definition and Explanation. In Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion, M. Banton, ed. Pp. 85–126. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  123. Stark, R. 1987 How New Religions Succeed. In The Future of New Religious Movements, D. Bromley and P. Hammond, eds. Pp. 11–29. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press.Google Scholar
  124. 1994 Sociology, fifth ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  125. Stillman, N. 1979 The Jews of Arab Lands. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
  126. Telushkin, J. 1991 Jewish Literacy. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  127. Tietze, C. 1957 Reproductive Span and Rate of Reproduction among Hutterite Women. Fertility and Sterility 8:89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tillich, P. 1951 Systematic Theology, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  129. 1952 The Courage To Be. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  130. 1957 The Protestant Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  131. Turner, V. 1967 The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  132. 1969 The Ritual Process. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  133. Tuzin, D. 1982 Ritual Violence among the Ilahita Arapesh. In Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea, G. H. Herdt, ed. Pp. 321–356. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  134. Tyler, T., and S. Blader 2000 Cooperation in Groups. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  135. Vallacher, R., and D. Wegner 1985 A Theory of Action Identification. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  136. van den Berghe, P., and K. Peter 1988 Hutterites and Kibbutzniks: A Tale of Nepotistic Communism. Man 23:522–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wallace, A. 1966 Religion: An Anthropological View. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  138. Wilson, B. 1987 Factors in the Failure of New Religious Movements. In The Future of New Religious Movements, D. Bromley and P. Hammond, eds. Pp. 30–45. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Wilson, D. S. 2002 Darwin’s Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wilson, E. O. 1998a The Biological Basis of Morality. Atlantic Monthly (April):53–70.Google Scholar
  141. 1998b Consilience. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  142. Wilson, L. 2000 Hutterites of Montana. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Winterhalder, B., and E. Smith 2000 Analyzing Adaptive Strategies: Human Behavioral Ecology at Twenty-five. Evolutionary Anthropology 9:51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Whiting, J., R. Kluckholn, and A. Anthony 1958 The Function of Male Initiation Ceremonies at Puberty. In Readings in Social Psychology, E. Maccoby, T. Newcomb, E. Hartley, eds. Pp. 359–370. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  145. Young, F. 1965 Initiation Ceremonies. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  146. Zahavi, A. 1975 Mate Selection—A Selection for a Handicap. Journal of Theoretical Biology 53:205–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 1977 The Cost of Honesty (Further Remarks on the Handicap Principle). Journal of Theoretical Biology 67:603–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zimbardo, P., A. Cohen, M. Weisenburg, L. Dworkin, and I. Firestone 1969 The Control of Experimental Pain. In The Cognitive Control of Motivation, P. Zimbardo, ed. Pp. 100–125. Glenview, Illinois: Scott Foresman.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Walter de Gruyter, Inc 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology U-2176University of ConnecticutStorrs

Personalised recommendations