The American Sociologist

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 159–177 | Cite as

Antiracist Education in Theory and Practice: A Critical Assessment

  • Jack NiemonenEmail author


“Antiracist Education in Theory and Practice: A Critical Assessment” As a set of pedagogical, curricular, and organizational strategies, antiracist education claims to be the most progressive way today to understand race relations. Constructed from whiteness studies and the critique of colorblindness, its foundational core is located in approximately 160 papers published in peer-reviewed journals in the past 15 years-identified through a comprehensive search of Academic Premier Search, EBSCOMegaFile, Education Abstracts, JSTOR, and SOCIndex. A critical assessment of these papers concludes that antiracist education is not a sociologically grounded, empirically based account of the significance of race in American society. Rather, it is a morally based educational reform movement that embodies the confessional and redemptive modes common in evangelical Protestantism. Inherently problematic, whether or not antiracist education achieves broader acceptance is open to debate.


Antiracist education Theory and practice Critical assessment 


  1. Ahlquist, R. (1991). Position and imposition: Power relations in a multicultural foundations class. The Journal of Negro Education, 60(2), 158–169.Google Scholar
  2. Akintunde, O. (1999). White racism, white supremacy, white privilege, & the social construction of race: Moving from modernist to postmodernist multiculturalism. Multicultural Education, 7(2), 2–8.Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, M. L. (2001). Restructuring for whom? Race, class, gender, and the ideology of invisibility. Sociological Forum, 16(2), 181–201.Google Scholar
  4. Applebaum, B. (1997). Good liberal intentions are not enough! racism, intentions and moral responsibility. Journal of Moral Education, 26(4), 409–421.Google Scholar
  5. Aveling, N. (2002). Student teachers’ resistance to exploring racism: Reflections on ‘doing’ border pedagogy. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2), 119–130.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, A. (1998). Locating traitorous identities: Toward a view of privilege-cognizant white character. Hypatia, 13(3), 27–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banton, M. (2003). Teaching ethnic and racial studies. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 26(3), 488–502.Google Scholar
  8. Barnett, T. (2000). Reading ‘whiteness’ in english studies. College English, 63 (1), 9–37.Google Scholar
  9. Bash, H. H. (1979). Sociology, race, and ethnicity: A critique of american ideological intrusions upon sociological theory. New York: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  10. Batur-VanderLippe, P. (1999). On the necessity of antiracist praxis: An experience in teaching and learning. Teaching Sociology, 27(3), 274–285.Google Scholar
  11. Bell, L. A. (2003). Telling tales: What stories can teach us about racism. Race Ethnicity and Education, 6(1), 3–28.Google Scholar
  12. Berlak, A. (1999). Teaching and testimony: Witnessing and bearing witness to racisms in culturally diverse classrooms. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(1), 99–127.Google Scholar
  13. Bleakley, A. (2000). Writing with invisible ink: Narrative, confessionalism and reflective practice. Reflective Practice 1(1), 11–24.Google Scholar
  14. Bleich, D. (1995). Collaboration and the pedagogy of disclosure. College English, 57(1), 43–61.Google Scholar
  15. Blum, L. (1998). Can we talk? Interracial dialogue in the university classroom. Change, 30(6), 26–37.Google Scholar
  16. Blum, L. (1999). What is ‘racism’ in antiracist education? Teachers College Record, 100(4), 860–880.Google Scholar
  17. Bonnett, A. (1996). Anti-racism as a radical educational ideology in london and tyneside. Oxford Review of Education, 16(2), 255–267.Google Scholar
  18. Bonnett, A., & Carrington, B. (1996). Constructions of anti-racist education in Britain and Canada. Comparative Education, 32(3), 271–288.Google Scholar
  19. Boyd, D. (1996). Dominance concealed through diversity: Implications of inadequate perspectives on cultural pluralism. Harvard Educational Review, 66(3), 609–630.Google Scholar
  20. Carrim, N. (1995). Working with and through differences in antiracist pedagogies. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 5(1), 25–39.Google Scholar
  21. Carrim, N. (2000). Critical anti-racism and problems in self articulated forms of identity [1]. Race Ethnicity and Education, 3(1), 25–44.Google Scholar
  22. Christensen, K. (1997). With whom do you believe your lot is cast? White feminists and racism. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 22(3), 617–648.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, A. (1987). Moral protest, status defence and the anti-abortion campaign. The British Journal of Sociology, 38(2), 235–253.Google Scholar
  24. Clem, B. (2005). Pedagogy of a radical multiculturalism. MELUS, 30(2), 123–138.Google Scholar
  25. Cone, J. H. (2004). Theology’s great sin: Silence in the face of white supremacy. Black Theology: An International Journal, 2(2), 139–152.Google Scholar
  26. Cooney, M. H., & Akintunde, O. (1999). Confronting white privilege and the ‘color blind’ paradigm in a teacher education program. Multicultural Education, 7(2), 9–14.Google Scholar
  27. Cross, B. E. (2005). New racism, reformed teacher education, and the same ole’ oppression. Educational Studies, 38(3), 263–274.Google Scholar
  28. Croteau, J. M. (1999). One struggle through individualism: Toward an antiracist white racial identity. Journal of Counseling and Development, 77(1), 30–32.Google Scholar
  29. Das Gupta, T. (2003). Teaching anti-racist research in the academy. Teaching Sociology, 31(4), 456–468.Google Scholar
  30. Denevi, E. (2004). White on white: Exploring white racial identity, privilege, and racism. Independent School, 63(4), 78–82. 84–87.Google Scholar
  31. DiAngelo, R. J. (2006). My class didn’t trump my race: Using oppression to face privilege. Multicultural Perspectives, 8(1), 52–56.Google Scholar
  32. Dlamini, S. N. (2002). From the other side of the desk: Notes on teaching about race when racialised. Race Ethnicity and Education, 5(1), 51–66.Google Scholar
  33. Doane, A. (2006). What is racism? Racial discourse and racial politics. Critical Sociology, 32(2/3), 255–274.Google Scholar
  34. Dodd, J. S. (1978). The working classes and the temperance movement in ante-bellum Boston. Labor History, 19(4), 510–531.Google Scholar
  35. Ecclestone, K., Hayes, D., & Furedi, F. (2005). Knowing me, knowing you: The rise of therapeutic professionalism in the education of adults. Studies in the Education of Adults, 37(2), 182–200.Google Scholar
  36. Eichstedt, J. L. (2001). Problematic white identities and a search for racial justice. Sociological Forum, 16(3), 445–470.Google Scholar
  37. Ellison, J. (1996). A short history of liberal guilt. Critical Inquiry, 22(2), 344–371.Google Scholar
  38. Faver, C. A. (2000). To run and not be weary: Spirituality and women’s activism. Review of Religious Research, 42(1), 61–78.Google Scholar
  39. Feldman, S., & Leonie, H. (2005). Racial resentment and white opposition to race-conscious programs: Principles or prejudice? American Journal of Political Science, 49(1), 168–183.Google Scholar
  40. Frickel, S., & Gross, N. (2005). A general theory of scientific/intellectual movements. American Sociological Review, 70(2), 204–232.Google Scholar
  41. Gabriel, J. (1998). New contours of anti-racist politics. Patterns of Prejudice, 32(4), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gaine, C. (2001). If it’s not hurting it’s not working’: Teaching teachers about ‘race’. Research Papers in Education, 16(1), 93–113.Google Scholar
  43. Garner, S. (2006). The uses of whiteness: What sociologists working on europe can draw from U.S. research on whiteness. Sociology, 40(2), 257–275.Google Scholar
  44. Gilborn, D. (1996). Student roles and perspectives in antiracist education: A crisis of white ethnicity? British Educational Research Journal, 22(2), 165–179.Google Scholar
  45. Gillespie, D., Ashbaugh, L., & DeFiore, J. (2002). White women teaching white women about white privilege, race cognizance and social action: Toward a pedagogical pragmatics. Race Ethnicity and Education, 5(3), 237–253.Google Scholar
  46. Giroux, H. A. (1992). Post-colonial ruptures and democratic possibilities: Multiculturalism as anti-racist pedagogy. Cultural Critique, (21):5–39.Google Scholar
  47. Giroux, H. A. (1997a). Rewriting the discourse of racial identity: Towards a pedagogy and politics of whiteness. Harvard Educational Review, 67(2), 285–320.Google Scholar
  48. Giroux, H. A. (1997b). White squall: Resistance and the pedagogy of whiteness. Cultural Studies, 11(3), 376–389.Google Scholar
  49. Goldberg, C. (2002). The mortal storm: Righteousness and compassion in moral conflict. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 7(3), 265–278.Google Scholar
  50. Goldsmith, P. A. (2006). Learning to understand inequality and diversity: Getting students past ideologies. Teaching Sociology, 34(3), 263–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Griffin, G. B. (1998). Speaking of whiteness: Disrupting white innocence. The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, 31(3), 3–14.Google Scholar
  52. Grillo, T., & Wildman, S. M. (1991). Obscuring the importance of race: The implications of making comparisons between racism and sexism (or Other-Isms). Duke Law Journal, 1991(2):397–412.Google Scholar
  53. Hammersley, M. (1993). Research and ‘anti-racism’: The case of peter foster and his critics. The British Journal of Sociology, 44(3), 429–448.Google Scholar
  54. Harris, C. I. (1993). Whiteness as property. Harvard Law Review, 106(8), 1707–1791.Google Scholar
  55. Harris, C. I. (2006). Review essay: Whitewashing race: Scapegoating culture. California Law Review, 94(3), 907–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Harrison, F. V. (1995). The persistent power of ‘race’ in the cultural and political economy of racism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 47–74.Google Scholar
  57. Hartigan, J., Jr. (1997). Establishing the fact of whiteness. American Anthropologist, New Series, 99(3), 495–505.Google Scholar
  58. Hartley, H. (1999). What’s my orientation? Using the teacher-as-text strategy as feminist pedagogical practice. Teaching Sociology, 27(4), 398–406.Google Scholar
  59. Haymes, S. N. (2003). White students and the meaning of whiteness. Philosophy of Education Yearbook, 2003, 396–397.Google Scholar
  60. Hays, D. G., Chang, C. Y., & Dean, K. J. (2004). White counselors’ conceptualization of privilege and oppression: Implications for counselor training. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43(4), 242–257.Google Scholar
  61. Headley, C. (2006). Philosophical analysis and the problem of defining racism. Philosophia Africana, 9(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  62. Henze, R., Lucas, T., & Scott, B. (1998). Dancing with the monster: Teachers discuss racism, power, and white privilege in education. The Urban Review, 30(3), 187–210.Google Scholar
  63. Hogue, C., Parker, K., & Miller, M. (1998). Talking the talk and walking the walk: Ethical pedagogy in the multicultural classroom. Feminist Teacher, 12(2), 89–106.Google Scholar
  64. Hunter, M. L., & Nettles, K. D. (1999). What about the white women?: Racial politics in a women’s studies classroom. Teaching Sociology, 27(4), 385–397.Google Scholar
  65. Jakubowski, L. M. (2001). Teaching uncomfortable topics: An action-oriented strategy for addressing racism and related forms of difference. Teaching Sociology, 29(1), 62–79.Google Scholar
  66. Jay, G., & Jones, S. E. (2005). Whiteness studies and the multicultural literature classroom. MELUS, 30(2), 99–121.Google Scholar
  67. Johnson, J., Rush, S., & Feagin, J. (2000). Doing anti-racism: Toward an egalitarian society. Contemporary Sociology, 29(1), 95–110.Google Scholar
  68. Keating, A. L. (1995). Interrogating ‘whiteness’, (De)constructing ‘race’. College English, 57(8), 901–918.Google Scholar
  69. Kim, L. M. (2001). ’I was [so] busy fighting racism that i didn’t even know i was being oppressed as a woman!’: Challenges, changes, and empowerment in teaching about women of color. NWSA Journal, 13(2), 98–111.Google Scholar
  70. Kincheloe, J. L. (1999). The struggle to define and reinvent whiteness: A pedagogical analysis. College Literature, 26(3), 162–194.Google Scholar
  71. King, J. E. (1991). Dysconscious racism: Ideology, identity, and the miseducation of teachers. The Journal of Negro Education, 60(2), 133–146.Google Scholar
  72. King, R. C. (2005). Cautionary notes on whiteness and sport studies. Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 397–408.Google Scholar
  73. Kobayashi, A. (1998). ’Race’ and racism in the classroom: Some thoughts on unexpected moments. Journal of Geography, 98(4), 179–182.Google Scholar
  74. Kumashiro, K. K. (2000). Toward a theory of anti-oppressive education. Review of Educational Research, 70(1), 25–53.Google Scholar
  75. Lawrence, S. M. (1997). Beyond race awareness: White racial identity and multicultural teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 48(2), 108–117.Google Scholar
  76. Lawrence, S. M. (2005). Contextual matters: Teachers’ perceptions of the success of antiracist classroom practices. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(6), 350–365.Google Scholar
  77. Lawrence, S. M., & Tatum, B. D. (1997). Teachers in transition: The impact of antiracist professional development on classroom practice. Teachers College Record, 99(1), 162–178.Google Scholar
  78. Levine-Rasky, C. (2000). Framing whiteness: Working through the tensions in introducing whiteness to educators. Race Ethnicity and Education, 3(3), 271–292.Google Scholar
  79. Lewis, A. E. (2004). ’What group?’ Studying whites and whiteness in the era of ‘color-blindness’. Sociological Theory, 22(4), 623–646.Google Scholar
  80. Lipsitz, G. (1995). The possessive investment in whiteness: Racialized social democracy and the ‘white’ problem in american studies. American Quarterly, 47(3), 369–387.Google Scholar
  81. Locke, D. C., & Kiselica, M. S. (1999). Pedagogy of possibilities: Teaching about racism in multicultural counseling courses. Journal of Counseling and Development, 77(1), 80–86.Google Scholar
  82. Lowy, R. F. (1998). Development theory, globalism, and the new world order: The need for a postmodern, antiracist, and multicultural critique. Journal of Black Studies, 28(5), 594–615.Google Scholar
  83. Lund, D. E. (2006). Waking up the neighbors: Surveying multicultural and antiracist education in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Multicultural Perspectives, 8(1), 35–43.Google Scholar
  84. Lynn, M. (2004). Inserting the ‘race’ into critical pedagogy: An analysis of ‘race-based epistemologies’. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36(2), 153–165.Google Scholar
  85. Magnet, S. (2006). Protesting privilege: An autoethnographic look at whiteness. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(4), 736–749.Google Scholar
  86. Manglitz, E. (2003). Challenging white privilege in adult education: A critical review of the literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 53(2), 119–134.Google Scholar
  87. Manglitz, E., Johnson-Bailey, J., & Cervero, R. M. (2005). Struggles of hope: How white adult educators challenge racism. Teachers College Record, 107(6), 1245–1274.Google Scholar
  88. Mansfield, E., & Kehoe, J. (1994). A critical examination of anti-racist education. Canadian Journal of Education, 19(4), 418–430.Google Scholar
  89. Marx, S., & Pennington, J. (2003). Pedagogies of critical race theory: Experimentations with white preservice teachers. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 16(1), 91–110.Google Scholar
  90. Mayo, C. (2004). Certain privilege: Rethinking white agency. Philosophy of Education Yearbook, 2004, 317–335.Google Scholar
  91. McCorkel, J. A., & Myers, K. (2003). What difference does difference make? Position and privilege in the field. Qualitative Sociology, 26(2), 199–231.Google Scholar
  92. McDermott, M., & Samson, F. L. (2005). White racial and ethnic identity in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 245–261.Google Scholar
  93. McIntosh, P. (1990). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Independent School, 49(2), 31–35.Google Scholar
  94. McIntosh, P. (1993). Examining unearned privilege. Liberal Education, 79(1), 61–62.Google Scholar
  95. McIntyre, A. (1997). Constructing an image of a white teacher. Teachers College Record, 98(4), 653–681.Google Scholar
  96. McKee, J. B. (1993). Sociology and the race problem: The failure of a perspective. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  97. McLaren, P. L. (1993). Multiculturalism and the postmodern critique: Towards a pedagogy of resistance and transformation. Cultural Studies, 7(1), 118–146.Google Scholar
  98. McMahon, B. J. (2003). Putting the elephant into the refrigerator: Student engagement, critical pedagogy and antiracist education. McGill Journal of Education, 38(2), 257–273.Google Scholar
  99. Merton, R. K. (1972). Insiders and outsiders: A chapter in the sociology of knowledge. American Journal of Sociology, 78(1), 9–47.Google Scholar
  100. Michelman, F. I. (1997). Foreword: ‘racialism’ and racism. Michigan Law Review, 95(4), 723–740.Google Scholar
  101. Miles, R. (1993). Racism after ‘race relations’. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  102. Moon, D. & Flores, L. A. (2000). Antiracism and the abolition of whiteness: Rhetorical strategies of domination among ‘race traitors’. Communication Studies, 51(2), 97–115.Google Scholar
  103. Moulder, F. V. (1997). Teaching about race and ethnicity: A message of despair or a message of hope? Teaching Sociology, 25(2), 120–127.Google Scholar
  104. Neville, H., Spanierman, L., & Doan, B.-T. (2006). Exploring the association between colorblind racial ideology and multicultural counseling competencies. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(2), 275–290.Google Scholar
  105. Niemonen, J. (1999). Deconstructing cultural pluralism. Sociological Spectrum, 19(4), 401–419.Google Scholar
  106. Niemonen, J. (2002). Race, class, and the state in contemporary sociology: the William Julius Wilson debates. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  107. Nile, L. N., & Straton, J. C. (2003). Beyond guilt: How to deal with societal racism. Multicultural Education, 10(4), 2–6.Google Scholar
  108. Osborne, A. B. (1996). Practice into theory into practice: Culturally relevant pedagogy for students we have marginalized and normalized. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 27(3), 285–314.Google Scholar
  109. Parker, L., & Stovall, D. O. (2004). Actions following words: Critical race theory connects to critical pedagogy. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36(2), 167–182.Google Scholar
  110. Parker, W. M., Moore, M. A., & Neimeyer, G. J. (1998). Altering white racial identity and interracial conflict through multicultural training. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76(3), 302–310.Google Scholar
  111. Patton, T. O. (2004). In the guise of civility: The complicitous maintenance of inferential forms of sexism and racism in higher education. Women’s Studies in Communication, 27(1), 60–87.Google Scholar
  112. Pearce, S. (2003). Compiling the white inventory: The practice of whiteness in a british primary school. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(2), 273–288.Google Scholar
  113. Pence, D. J., & Fields, J. A. (1999). Teaching about race and ethnicity: Trying to uncover white privilege for a white audience. Teaching Sociology, 27(2), 150–158.Google Scholar
  114. Pierce, A. E. (2003). Irruptions of voice: A critique of ‘rhizovocality’ by a white feminist researcher. Qualitative Studies in Education, 16(5), 721–723.Google Scholar
  115. Pramuk, C. (2006). ’Strange fruit’: Black suffering/white revelation. Theological Studies, 67(2), 345–377.Google Scholar
  116. Pruett, C. (2002). The complexions of ‘race’ and the rise of ‘whiteness’ studies. CLIO, 32(1), 27–51.Google Scholar
  117. Raby, R. (2004). ’There’s no racism at my school, it’s just joking around’: Ramifications for antiracist education. Race Ethnicity and Education, 7(4), 367–383.Google Scholar
  118. Ramsay, N. J. (2005). Teaching effectively in racially and culturally diverse classrooms. Teaching Theology and Religion, 8(1), 18–23.Google Scholar
  119. Rodriguez, R. (1999). The study of whiteness. Black Issues in Higher Education, 16(6), 20–25.Google Scholar
  120. Roediger, D. R. (2001). Critical studies of whiteness, USA: Origins and Arguments. Theoria (December), 72–99.Google Scholar
  121. Roth, B. M. (1989). Symbolic racism: The making of a scholarly myth. Academic Questions, 2(3), 53–65.Google Scholar
  122. Rothenberg, B. (2002). The success of the battered woman syndrome: An analysis of how cultural arguments succeed. Sociological Forum, 17(1), 81–103.Google Scholar
  123. Rothenberg, P. (1996). Teaching vs. history as part of diversity studies. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(2), 134–142.Google Scholar
  124. Rothenberg, P. (2000). Beyond the food court: Goals and strategies for teaching multiculturalism. Feminist Teacher, 13(1), 61–73.Google Scholar
  125. Ruemper, W. (1996). Models for change: Antiracist education for universities and colleges. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 33(3), 317–335.Google Scholar
  126. Ryan, K. J. (2002). Teaching ‘the house on mango street’: Engaging race, class, and gender in a white classroom. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 6(4), 187–192.Google Scholar
  127. Scatamburio-D’Annibale, V., & McClaren, P. (2003). The strategic centrality of class in the politics of ‘race’ and ‘difference’. Cultural Studies/Critical Methodologies, 3(2), 148–176.Google Scholar
  128. Schacht, S. P. (2001). Teaching about being an oppressor. Men and Masculinities, 4(2), 201–208.Google Scholar
  129. Scheurich, J. J. (1993a). Toward a white discourse on white racism. Educational Researcher, 22(8), 5–10.Google Scholar
  130. Scheurich, J. J. (1993b). A difficult, confusing, painful problem that requires many voices, many perspectives. Educational Researcher, 22(8), 15–16.Google Scholar
  131. Scheurich, J. J., & Young, M. D. (1998). Rejoinder: In the United States of America, in both our souls and our sciences, we are avoiding white racism. Educational Researcher, 27(9), 27–32.Google Scholar
  132. Schick, C. (2000). ’By virtue of being white’: Resistance in anti-racist pedagogy. Race Ethnicity and Education, 3(1), 83–101.Google Scholar
  133. Scott, E. K. (2000). Everyone against racism: Agency and the production of meaning in the anti-racism practices of two feminist organizations. Theory and Society, 29(6), 785–818.Google Scholar
  134. Sefa Dei, G. J. (1993). The challenges of anti-racist education in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 25(2), 36–51.Google Scholar
  135. Sefa Dei, G. J. (1996). Critical perspectives in antiracism: An introduction. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 33(3), 247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sefa Dei, G. J. (1999). Knowledge and politics of social change: The implications of anti-racism. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20(3), 395–409.Google Scholar
  137. Seiler, N. (2003). Identifying racial privilege: Lessons from critical race theory and the law. American Journal of Bioethics, 3(2), 24–25.Google Scholar
  138. Short, G. (1991). Combatting anti-semitism: A dilemma for anti-racist education. British Journal of Educational Studies, 39(1), 33–44.Google Scholar
  139. Short, G. (1999). Antiracist education and moral behaviour: Lessons from the holocaust. Journal of Moral Education, 28(1), 49–62.Google Scholar
  140. Sleeter, C. E. (2001). Preparing teachers for culturally diverse schools: Research and the overwhelming presence of whiteness. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 94–106.Google Scholar
  141. Smith, G. P. (1998). Who shall have the moral courage to heal racism in America? Multicultural Education, 5(3), 4–10.Google Scholar
  142. Smith-Maddox, R., & Solórzano, D. G. (2002). Using critical race theory, Paulo Freire’s problem-posing method, and case study research to confront race and racism in education. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 66–84.Google Scholar
  143. Snyder, R. C. (2004). Radical civic virtue: Women in 19th-century civil society. New Political Science, 26(1), 51–69.Google Scholar
  144. Solomon, R. P., & Levine-Rasky, C. (1996). Transforming teacher education for an antiracism pedagogy. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 33(3), 337–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Solórzano, D. G., & Yosso T. J. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23–44.Google Scholar
  146. Sowards, S. K., & Renegar, V. R. (2004). The rhetorical functions of consciousness-raising in third wave feminism. Communication Studies, 55(4), 535–552.Google Scholar
  147. Srivastava, S. (1996). Song and dance? The performance of antiracist workshops. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 33(3), 291–315.Google Scholar
  148. Srivastava, S. (2005). ’You’re calling me a racist?” The moral and emotional regulation of antiracism and feminism. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 31(1), 29–62.Google Scholar
  149. Srivastava, S., & Francis, M. (2006). The problem of ‘authentic experience’: Storytelling in anti-racist and anti-homophobic education. Critical Sociology, 32(2/3), 275–307.Google Scholar
  150. Staiano, K. V. (1980). Ethnicity as process: The creation of an afro-american identity. Ethnicity, 7, 27–33.Google Scholar
  151. Swartz, E. (1993). Multicultural education: Disrupting patterns of supremacy in school curricula, practices and pedagogy. The Journal of Negro Education, 62(4), 493–506.Google Scholar
  152. Tate, W. F. IV. (1997). Critical race theory and education: History, theory, and implications. Review of Research in Education, 22, 195–247.Google Scholar
  153. Thompson, A. (1997). For: Anti-racist education. Curriculum Inquiry, 27(1), 7–44.Google Scholar
  154. Thompson, A. (2003a). Tiffany, friend of people of color: White investments in antiracism. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 16(1), 7–29.Google Scholar
  155. Thompson, A. (2003b). Antiracist work zones. Philosophy of Education Yearbook, 2003, 387–395.Google Scholar
  156. Thompson, B., & Disch, E. (1992). Feminist, anti-racist, anti-oppression teaching: Two white women’s experience. Radical Teacher, 41, 4–10. (Spring)Google Scholar
  157. Troyna, B. (1987). Beyond multiculturalism: Towards the enactment of anti-racist education in policy, provision and pedagogy. Oxford Review of Education, 13(3), 307–320.Google Scholar
  158. Troyna, B. (1991). Children, ‘race’ and racism: The limitations of research and policy. British Journal of Educational Studies, 39(4), 425–436.Google Scholar
  159. Troyna, B. (1995). Beyond reasonable doubt? Researching ‘race’ in educational settings. Oxford Review of Education, 21(4), 395–408.Google Scholar
  160. Tsang, B. (1992). Anti-racist education: A career in social and political change. Women’s Education-Education des femmes, 9(3), 25–28.Google Scholar
  161. Wald, K. D., Owen, D. E., & Hill, S. S., Jr. (1989). Evangelical politics and status issues. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  162. Wald, H.,(2005). Aporias, responsibility, and the impossibility of teaching multicultural education. Educational Theory, 55(1), 45–59.Google Scholar
  163. Wang, H. (2005). Aporias, responsibility, and the im/possibility of teaching multicultural education. Educational Theory, 55(1), 45–59.Google Scholar
  164. Warren, J. T., & Hytten, K. (2004). The faces of whiteness: Pitfalls and the critical democrat. Communication Education, 53(4), 321–339.Google Scholar
  165. Washburn, J. J., Manley, T., Jr., & Holiwsky, F. (2003). Teaching on racism: Tools for consultant training. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 14(3/4), 387–399.Google Scholar
  166. Webb, P. T. (2001). Reflection and reflective teaching: Ways to improve pedagogy or ways to remain racist? Race Ethnicity and Education, 4(3), 149–156.Google Scholar
  167. Weir, L. (1991). Anti-racist feminist pedagogy, self-observed. Resources for Feminist Research, 20(3–4), 19–26.Google Scholar
  168. Williams, J. (1986). Education and race: The racialisation of class inequalities? British Journal of Sociology of Education, 7(2), 135–154.Google Scholar
  169. Wilson, B. R. (1985). Morality in the evolution of the modern social system. The British Journal of Sociology, 36(3), 315–332.Google Scholar
  170. Zajicek, A. M. (2002). Race discourses and antiracist practices in a local women’s movement. Gender and Society, 16(2), 155–174.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology & SociologyUniversity of South DakotaVermillionUSA

Personalised recommendations