Soft Tissue Special Issue: Chondroid Neoplasms of the Skull

  • 9 Accesses


Clinically, radiologically, and pathologically, chondroid neoplasms of the skull can be diagnostically challenging due to overlapping features in each of these domains. Compounding the problem for the pathologist, there is also significant morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic overlap between benign and malignant cartilaginous lesions, and the majority of these lesions are encountered quite rarely in routine surgical pathology practice. Each of these factors contribute to the diagnostic difficulty posed by these lesions, highlighting the importance of radiologic-pathologic correlation in the diagnosis. This review is intended to provide an update for surgical pathologists on some of the most commonly encountered chondroid neoplasms in the skull, and includes the following lesions: chondromyxoid fibroma, synovial chondromatosis, chondrosarcoma and variants, and chordoma and variants. For each of these lesions, the differential diagnosis and useful ancillary tests will be discussed in the context of a broad range of additional primary and secondary lesions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. 1.

    Koyama J, Ito J, Hayashi T, Kobayashi F. Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint complicated by displacement and calcification of the articular disk: report of two cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22(6):1203–6.

  2. 2.

    Ardekian L, Faquin W, Troulis MJ, Kaban LB, August M. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: report and analysis of eleven cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63(7):941–7.

  3. 3.

    Merrill RG, Yih WY, Shamloo J. Synovial chondrosarcoma of the temporomandibular joint: a case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;55(11):1312–6.

  4. 4.

    Ichikawa T, Miyauchi M, Nikai H, Yoshiga K. Synovial chondrosarcoma arising in the temporomandibular joint. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1998;56(7):890–4.

  5. 5.

    Coleman H, Chandraratnam E, Morgan G, Gomes L, Bonar F. Synovial chondrosarcoma arising in synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(3):304–9.

  6. 6.

    Sperling BL, Angel S, Stoneham G, Chow V, McFadden A, Chibbar R. Synovial chondromatosis and chondrosarcoma: a diagnostic dilemma. Sarcoma. 2003;7(2):69–73.

  7. 7.

    Davis RI, Hamilton A, Biggart JD. Primary synovial chondromatosis: a clinicopathologic review and assessment of malignant potential. Hum Pathol. 1998;29(7):683–8.

  8. 8.

    Amary F, Perez-Casanova L, Ye H, Cottone L, Strobl AC, Cool P, et al. Synovial chondromatosis and soft tissue chondroma: extraosseous cartilaginous tumor defined by FN1 gene rearrangement. Mod Pathol. 2019;32(12):1762.

  9. 9.

    Blankestijn J, Panders AK, Vermey A, Scherpbier AJ. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporo-mandibular joint. Report of three cases and a review of the literature. Cancer. 1985;55(2):479–85.

  10. 10.

    Murphey MD, Vidal JA, Fanburg-Smith JC, Gajewski DA. Imaging of synovial chondromatosis with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2007;27(5):1465–88.

  11. 11.

    Wang P, Tian Z, Yang J, Yu Q. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: MRI findings with pathological comparison. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012;41(2):110–6.

  12. 12.

    Herzog S, Mafee M. Synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ: MR and CT findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990;11(4):742–5.

  13. 13.

    Lieger O, Zix J, Stauffer-Brauch EJ, Iizuka T. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint with cranial extension: a case report and literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(10):2073–80.

  14. 14.

    Pau M, Bicsák A, Reinbacher KE, Feichtinger M, Kärcher H. Surgical treatment of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint with erosion of the skull base: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;43(5):600–5.

  15. 15.

    Atkins KA, Mills SM. Synovial chondromatosis. In: Barnes L, editor. Surgical pathology of the head and neck, vol. 3. New York: Informa Healthcare USA; 2009. p. 951–6.

  16. 16.

    Warner BF, Luna MA, Robert Newland T. Temporomandibular joint neoplasms and pseudotumors. Adv Anat Pathol. 2000;7(6):365–81.

  17. 17.

    Bovee J, Heymann D, Wuyts W. Osteochondroma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 250–1.

  18. 18.

    de Saint Aubain Somerhausen N, van de Rijn M. So-called fibrohistiocytic tumours. In: Fletcher CDM, Bridge JA, Hogendoorn PCW, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 100–3.

  19. 19.

    Bertoni F, Unni KK, Beabout JW, Sim FH. Chondrosarcomas of the synovium. Cancer. 1991;67(1):155–62.

  20. 20.

    McClurg SW, Leon M, Teknos TN, Iwenofu OH. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the nasal septum: case report and review of literature. Head Neck. 2013;35(1):E1–5.

  21. 21.

    Yu E, Vescan A, Perez-Ordonez B, Lazinski D, Bartlett E. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the skull base: case report and review of the literature. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;38(5):E114–7.

  22. 22.

    Sabharwal A, Magliocca KR, Williams MD. Ear and temporal bone: cartilaginous and osseous pathologies. Head Neck Pathol. 2018;12(3):378–91.

  23. 23.

    Castle JT, Kernig ML. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the ethmoid sinus. Head Neck Pathol. 2011;5(3):261–4.

  24. 24.

    Wu CT, Inwards CY, O’Laughlin S, Rock MG, Beabout JW, Unni KK. Chondromyxoid fibroma of bone: a clinicopathologic review of 278 cases. Hum Pathol. 1998;29(5):438–46.

  25. 25.

    Romeo S, Aigner T, Bridge J. Chondromyxoid fibroma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 255–6.

  26. 26.

    Kilpatrick S, Romeo S. Chondroblastoma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 262–3.

  27. 27.

    Folpe AL. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour. In: Fletcher CDM, Bridge JA, Hogendoorn PCW, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 211–2.

  28. 28.

    Koch BB, Karnell LH, Hoffman HT, Apostolakis LW, Robinson RA, Zhen W, et al. National cancer database report on chondrosarcoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2000;22(4):408–25.

  29. 29.

    Unni K, Inwards C. Dahlin’s bone tumors: general aspects and data on 10,165 cases. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. p. 60–90.

  30. 30.

    Inwards CY. Update on cartilage forming tumors of the head and neck. Head Neck Pathol. 2007;1(1):67–74.

  31. 31.

    Hogendoorn P, Bovee J. Chondrosarcoma (grades I-III), including primary and secondary variants and periosteal chondrosarcoma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 264–8.

  32. 32.

    Saito K, Unni KK, Wollan PC, Lund BA. Chondrosarcoma of the jaw and facial bones. Cancer. 1995;76(9):1550–8.

  33. 33.

    Huvos AG. Bone tumors: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, vol. 2. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1991.

  34. 34.

    Thompson LD, Gannon FH. Chondrosarcoma of the larynx: a clinicopathologic study of 111 cases with a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26(7):836–51.

  35. 35.

    Nakashima Y, de Pinieux G, Ladanyi M. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 271–2.

  36. 36.

    Frezza AM, Cesari M, Baumhoer D, Biau D, Bielack S, Campanacci DA, et al. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: prognostic factors and outcome in 113 patients. A European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society study. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51(3):374–81.

  37. 37.

    Bohman LE, Koch M, Bailey RL, Alonso-Basanta M, Lee JY. Skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma: influence of clinical and demographic factors on prognosis: a SEER analysis. World Neurosurg. 2014;82(5):806–14.

  38. 38.

    Rosenberg AE, Brown GA, Bhan AK, Lee JM. Chondroid chordoma–a variant of chordoma. A morphologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Clin Pathol. 1994;101(1):36–41.

  39. 39.

    Tien N, Chaisuparat R, Fernandes R, Sarlani E, Papadimitriou JC, Ord RA, et al. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the maxilla: case report and literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(6):1260–6.

  40. 40.

    Garrington GE, Collett WK. Chondrosarcoma. II. Chondrosarcoma of the jaws: analysis of 37 cases. J Oral Pathol. 1988;17(1):12–20.

  41. 41.

    Knott PD, Gannon FH, Thompson LD. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological study of 13 cases with a review of the literature. Laryngoscope. 2003;113(5):783–90.

  42. 42.

    Evans HL, Ayala AG, Romsdahl MM. Prognostic factors in chondrosarcoma of bone: a clinicopathologic analysis with emphasis on histologic grading. Cancer. 1977;40(2):818–31.

  43. 43.

    Finn DG, Goepfert H, Batsakis JG. Chondrosarcoma of the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 1984;94(12 Pt 1):1539–44.

  44. 44.

    Amary MF, Bacsi K, Maggiani F, Damato S, Halai D, Berisha F, et al. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are frequent events in central chondrosarcoma and central and periosteal chondromas but not in other mesenchymal tumours. J Pathol. 2011;224(3):334–43.

  45. 45.

    Amary MF, Damato S, Halai D, Eskandarpour M, Berisha F, Bonar F, et al. Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are caused by somatic mosaic mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. Nat Genet. 2011;43(12):1262–5.

  46. 46.

    Damato S, Alorjani M, Bonar F, McCarthy SW, Cannon SR, O’Donnell P, et al. IDH1 mutations are not found in cartilaginous tumours other than central and periosteal chondrosarcomas and enchondromas. Histopathology. 2012;60(2):363–5.

  47. 47.

    Wang L, Motoi T, Khanin R, Olshen A, Mertens F, Bridge J, et al. Identification of a novel, recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma based on a genome-wide screen of exon-level expression data. Genes Chromosom Cancer. 2012;51(2):127–39.

  48. 48.

    Rosenberg A, Cleton-Jansen A, de Pinieux G, Deyrup A, Hauben E, Squire J. Conventional osteosarcoma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 282–8.

  49. 49.

    Nakashima Y, de Pinieux G, Ladanyi M. Chondrogenic tumours: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. In: Fletcher CDM, Bridge JA, Hogendoorn PCW, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 271–2.

  50. 50.

    Wehrli BM, Huang W, De Crombrugghe B, Ayala AG, Czerniak B. Sox9, a master regulator of chondrogenesis, distinguishes mesenchymal chondrosarcoma from other small blue round cell tumors. Hum Pathol. 2003;34(3):263–9.

  51. 51.

    Cajaiba MM, Luo Jianhua, Goodman MA, Fuhrer KA, Rao UN. Sox9 expression is not limited to chondroid neoplasms: variable occurrence in other soft tissue and bone tumors with frequent expression by synovial sarcomas. Int J Surg Pathol. 2010;18(5):319–23.

  52. 52.

    McMaster ML, Goldstein AM, Bromley CM, Ishibe N, Parry DM. Chordoma: incidence and survival patterns in the United States, 1973-1995. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(1):1–11.

  53. 53.

    Smoll NR, Gautschi OP, Radovanovic I, Schaller K, Weber DC. Incidence and relative survival of chordomas: the standardized mortality ratio and the impact of chordomas on a population. Cancer. 2013;119(11):2029–37.

  54. 54.

    Mukherjee D, Chaichana KL, Gokaslan ZL, Aaronson O, Cheng JS, McGirt MJ. Survival of patients with malignant primary osseous spinal neoplasms: results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1973 to 2003. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14(2):143–50.

  55. 55.

    Tirabosco R, Mangham DC, Rosenberg AE, Vujovic S, Bousdras K, Pizzolitto S, et al. Brachyury expression in extra-axial skeletal and soft tissue chordomas: a marker that distinguishes chordoma from mixed tumor/myoepithelioma/parachordoma in soft tissue. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32(4):572–80.

  56. 56.

    Lauer SR, Edgar MA, Gardner JM, Sebastian A, Weiss SW. Soft tissue chordomas: a clinicopathologic analysis of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37(5):719–26.

  57. 57.

    Khurram SA, Biswas D, Fernando M. A parapharyngeal soft tissue chordoma presenting with synchronous cervical lymph node metastasis: an unusual presentation. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10(3):400–4.

  58. 58.

    Nguyen RP, Salzman KL, Stambuk HE, Ahuja AT, Harnsberger HR. Extraosseous chordoma of the nasopharynx. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(4):803–7.

  59. 59.

    Kataria SP, Batra A, Singh G, Kumar S, Sen R. Chordoma of skull base presenting as nasopharyngeal mass. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2013;4(Suppl 1):S95–7.

  60. 60.

    Tao ZZ, Chen SM, Liu JF, Huang XL, Zhou L. Paranasal sinuses chordoma in pediatric patient: a case report and literature review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;69(10):1415–8.

  61. 61.

    Gladstone HB, Bailet JW, Rowland JP. Chordoma of the oropharynx: an unusual presentation and review of the literature. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;118(1):104–7.

  62. 62.

    Lynn-Macrae A, Haines GK, Altman KW. Primary chordoma of the lateral nasal wall: case report and review. Ear Nose Throat J. 2005;84(9):593–5.

  63. 63.

    Lee-Jones L, Aligianis I, Davies PA, Puga A, Farndon PA, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, et al. Sacrococcygeal chordomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex show somatic loss of TSC1 or TSC2. Genes Chromosom Cancer. 2004;41(1):80–5.

  64. 64.

    Oakley GJ, Fuhrer K, Seethala RR. Brachyury, SOX-9, and podoplanin, new markers in the skull base chordoma vs chondrosarcoma differential: a tissue microarray-based comparative analysis. Mod Pathol. 2008;21(12):1461–9.

  65. 65.

    Flanagan A, Yamaguchi T. Chordoma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 323–30.

  66. 66.

    Heffelfinger MJ, Dahlin DC, MacCarty CS, Beabout JW. Chordomas and cartilaginous tumors at the skull base. Cancer. 1973;32(2):410–20.

  67. 67.

    Chen JH, Chen KY, Hueng DY, Jin JS. Secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum: a case report. Oncol Lett. 2014;8(1):208–10.

  68. 68.

    Hoch BL, Nielsen GP, Liebsch NJ, Rosenberg AE. Base of skull chordomas in children and adolescents: a clinicopathologic study of 73 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(7):811–8.

  69. 69.

    Vujovic S, Henderson S, Presneau N, Odell E, Jacques TS, Tirabosco R, et al. Brachyury, a crucial regulator of notochordal development, is a novel biomarker for chordomas. J Pathol. 2006;209(2):157–65.

  70. 70.

    Miettinen M, Wang Z, Lasota J, Heery C, Schlom J, Palena C. Nuclear brachyury expression is consistent in chordoma, common in germ cell tumors and small cell carcinomas, and rare in other carcinomas and sarcomas: an immunohistochemical study of 5229 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015;39(10):1305–12.

  71. 71.

    Jambhekar NA, Rekhi B, Thorat K, Dikshit R, Agrawal M, Puri A. Revisiting chordoma with brachyury, a “new age” marker: analysis of a validation study on 51 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134(8):1181–7.

  72. 72.

    Sangoi AR, Karamchandani J, Lane B, Higgins JP, Rouse RV, Brooks JD, et al. Specificity of brachyury in the distinction of chordoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and germ cell tumors: a study of 305 cases. Mod Pathol. 2011;24(3):425–9.

  73. 73.

    Chavez JA, Nasir Ud Din, Memon A, Perry A. Anaplastic chordoma with loss of INI1 and brachyury expression in a 2-year-old girl. Clin Neuropathol. 2014;33(6):418–20.

  74. 74.

    Hasselblatt M, Thomas C, Hovestadt V, Schrimpf D, Johann P, Bens S, et al. Poorly differentiated chordoma with SMARCB1/INI1 loss: a distinct molecular entity with dismal prognosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2016;132(1):149–51.

  75. 75.

    Mobley BC, McKenney JK, Bangs CD, Callahan K, Yeom KW, Schneppenheim R, et al. Loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression in poorly differentiated chordomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120(6):745–53.

  76. 76.

    Shih AR, Cote GM, Chebib I, Choy E, DeLaney T, Deshpande V, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics of poorly differentiated chordoma. Mod Pathol. 2018;31(8):1237–45.

  77. 77.

    Shih AR, Chebib I, Deshpande V, Dickson BC, Iafrate AJ, Nielsen GP. Molecular characteristics of poorly differentiated chordoma. Genes Chromosom Cancer. 2019;58:804.

  78. 78.

    Rekhi B, Kosemehmetoglu K, Rane S, Soylemezoglu F, Bulut E. Poorly differentiated chordomas showing loss of INI1/SMARCB1: a report of 2 rare cases with diagnostic implications. Int J Surg Pathol. 2018;26(7):637–43.

  79. 79.

    Cha YJ, Hong CK, Kim DS, Lee SK, Park HJ, Kim SH. Poorly differentiated chordoma with loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression in pediatric patients: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Neuropathology. 2018;38(1):47–53.

  80. 80.

    Owosho AA, Zhang L, Rosenblum MK, Antonescu CR. High sensitivity of FISH analysis in detecting homozygous SMARCB1 deletions in poorly differentiated chordoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of nine cases. Genes Chromosom Cancer. 2018;57(2):89–95.

  81. 81.

    Antonelli M, Raso A, Mascelli S, Gessi M, Nozza P, Coli A, et al. SMARCB1/INI1 involvement in pediatric chordoma: a mutational and immunohistochemical analysis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41(1):56–61.

  82. 82.

    Yang XR, Ng D, Alcorta DA, Liebsch NJ, Sheridan E, Li S, et al. T (brachyury) gene duplication confers major susceptibility to familial chordoma. Nat Genet. 2009;41(11):1176–8.

  83. 83.

    Pillay N, Plagnol V, Tarpey PS, Lobo SB, Presneau N, Szuhai K, et al. A common single-nucleotide variant in T is strongly associated with chordoma. Nat Genet. 2012;44(11):1185–7.

  84. 84.

    Presneau N, Shalaby A, Ye H, Pillay N, Halai D, Idowu B, et al. Role of the transcription factor T (brachyury) in the pathogenesis of sporadic chordoma: a genetic and functional-based study. J Pathol. 2011;223(3):327–35.

  85. 85.

    Arai M, Nobusawa S, Ikota H, Takemura S, Nakazato Y. Frequent IDH1/2 mutations in intracranial chondrosarcoma: a possible diagnostic clue for its differentiation from chordoma. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2012;29(4):201–6.

  86. 86.

    Erdem E, Angtuaco EC, Van Hemert R, Park JS, Al-Mefty O. Comprehensive review of intracranial chordoma. Radiographics. 2003;23(4):995–1009.

  87. 87.

    Almefty K, Pravdenkova S, Colli BO, Al-Mefty O, Gokden M. Chordoma and chondrosarcoma: similar, but quite different, skull base tumors. Cancer. 2007;110(11):2457–67.

  88. 88.

    Pamir MN, Ozduman K. Analysis of radiological features relative to histopathology in 42 skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Eur J Radiol. 2006;58(3):461–70.

  89. 89.

    Rosenberg AE, Nielsen GP, Keel SB, Renard LG, Fitzek MM, Munzenrider JE, et al. Chondrosarcoma of the base of the skull: a clinicopathologic study of 200 cases with emphasis on its distinction from chordoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23(11):1370–8.

  90. 90.

    Folpe AL, Agoff SN, Willis J, Weiss SW. Parachordoma is immunohistochemically and cytogenetically distinct from axial chordoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23(9):1059–67.

  91. 91.

    Sangoi AR, Dulai MS, Beck AH, Brat DJ, Vogel H. Distinguishing chordoid meningiomas from their histologic mimics: an immunohistochemical evaluation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33(5):669–81.

  92. 92.

    Inwards C, Hogendoorn P. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. In: Fletcher C, Bridge J, Hogendoorn P, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. 4th ed. Lyon: IARC; 2013. p. 269–70.

  93. 93.

    Mokhtari S, Mirafsharieh A. Clear cell chondrosarcoma of the head and neck. Head Neck Oncol. 2012;4:13.

  94. 94.

    Hanna SA, Tirabosco R, Amin A, Pollock RC, Skinner JA, Cannon SR, et al. Dedifferentiated chordoma: a report of four cases arising ‘de novo’. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90(5):652–6.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to B. M. Purgina.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Flaman, A.N., Wasserman, J.K., Gravel, D.H. et al. Soft Tissue Special Issue: Chondroid Neoplasms of the Skull. Head and Neck Pathol (2020) doi:10.1007/s12105-019-01091-5

Download citation


  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Chordoma
  • Chondromyxoid fibroma
  • Synovial chondromatosis
  • Anaplastic chordoma