Tongue Lumps and Bumps: Histopathological Dilemmas and Clues for Diagnosis

  • Irit AllonEmail author
  • Marilena Vered
  • Ilana Kaplan
Special Issue: Colors and Textures, a Review of Oral Mucosal Entities


Exophytic lesions of the tongue encompass a diverse spectrum of entities. These are most commonly reactive, arising in response to local trauma but can also be neoplastic of epithelial, mesenchymal or miscellaneous origin. In most cases, the microscopic examination is likely to provide a straightforward diagnosis. However, some cases can still raise microscopic diagnostic dilemmas, such as conditions that mimic malignancies, benign tumors with overlapping features and anecdotal lesions. A series of “lumps and bumps” of the tongue are presented together with suggested clues that can assist in reaching a correct diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of the clinico-pathological correlations.


Tongue Lumps and bumps Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia Verrucous lesions Neural lesion Spindle cell tumors Adipocytic tumors Lymphoid-rich lesions 



No funding was received for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Irit Allon, Marilena Vered declares, Ilana Kaplan declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PathologyBarzilai University Medical CenterAshkelonIsrael
  2. 2.School of Health SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeer-ShebaIsrael
  3. 3.Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  4. 4.Institute of PathologySheba Medical CenterRamat GanIsrael
  5. 5.Institute of PathologyRabin Medical CenterPetah-TikvaIsrael
  6. 6.Institute of PathologyTel-Aviv Sourasky Medical CenterTel-AvivIsrael

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