Advertisement

HPV-Related Papillary Lesions of the Oral Mucosa: A Review

  • Sasha J. BetzEmail author
Special Issue: Colors and Textures, a Review of Oral Mucosal Entities

Abstract

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative of a group of clinically papillary lesions. The HPV-related lesions of the oral cavity include squamous papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, and multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. Benign entities, such as verruciform xanthoma or giant cell fibroma, as well as malignancies, such as papillary squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma, may be considered in the clinical and/or histologic differential diagnoses of these lesions. Mechanisms of infection, epidemiology, clinical presentations, histologic features, and differential diagnoses of the HPV-related oral pathologies are discussed. Current concepts of viral transmission, especially as pertaining to lesions in pediatric patients, and the impacts of HPV vaccination are reviewed.

Keywords

Human papillomavirus Squamous papilloma Oral warts Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia Squamous cell carcinoma HPV transmission 

Notes

Disclaimer

The opinions and assertions expressed herein are those of the author and are not to be construed as official or representing the views of the Department of the Navy or the Department of Defense.

Funding

No funding was received in association with this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Sasha J. Betz declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Graham SV. The human papillomavirus replication cycle, and its links to cancer progression: a comprehensive review. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131(17):2201–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Egawa N, Egawa K, Griffin H, Doorbar J. Human papillomaviruses; epithelial tropisms, and the development of neoplasia. Viruses. 2015;7(7):3863–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doorbar J, Egawa N, Griffin H, Kranjec C, Murakami I. Human papillomavirus molecular biology and disease association. Rev Med Virol. 2015;25(Suppl 1):2–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tam S, Fu S, Xu L, et al. The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus infection in healthy populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Oncol. 2018;82:91–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sabeena S, Bhat P, Kamath V, Arunkumar G. Possible non-sexual modes of transmission of human papilloma virus. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2017;43(3):429–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Summersgill KF, Smith EM, Levy BT, Allen JM, Haugen TH, Turek LP. Human papillomavirus in the oral cavities of children and adolescents. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;91(1):62–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D’Souza G, Agrawal Y, Halpern J, Bodison S, Gillison ML. Oral sexual behaviors associated with prevalent oral human papillomavirus infection. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(9):1263–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stanley MA. Epithelial cell responses to infection with human papillomavirus. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012;25(2):215–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bordignon V, Di Domenico EG, Trento E, et al. How human papillomavirus replication and immune evasion strategies take advantage of the host DNA damage repair machinery. Viruses. 2017;9(12).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Westrich JA, Warren CJ, Pyeon D. Evasion of host immune defenses by human papillomavirus. Virus Res. 2017;231:21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grabowska AK, Riemer AB. The invisible enemy—how human papillomaviruses avoid recognition and clearance by the host immune system. Open Virol J. 2012;6:249–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lingen MW, Xiao W, Schmitt A, Jiang B, et al. Low etiologic fraction for high-risk human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(1):1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abbey LM, Page DG, Sawyer DR. The clinical and histopathologic features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1980;49(5):419–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eversole LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2000;28(12):922–7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Syrjänen S. Human papillomavirus infections and oral tumors. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2003;192(3):123–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mammas IN, Sourvinos G, Spandidos DA. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168(3):267–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Plasencia JM. Cutaneous warts: diagnosis and treatment. Prim Care. 2000;27(2):423–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pringle GA. The role of human papillomavirus in oral disease. Dent Clin N Am. 2014;58(2):385–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eversole LR, Laipis PJ, Green TL. Human papillomavirus type 2 DNA in oral and labial verruca vulgaris. J Cutan Pathol. 1987;14(6):319–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fatahzadeh M. Oral manifestations of viral infections. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin N Am. 2017;25(2):163–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tamiolakis P, Theofilou VI, Tosios KI, Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou A. Oral verruciform xanthoma: report of 13 new cases and review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2018;23(4):e429–35.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eversole LR, Laipis PJ, Merrell P, Choi E. Demonstration of human papillomavirus DNA in oral condyloma acuminatum. J Oral Pathol. 1987;16(5):266–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wenig BM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: dysplasia and select variants. Mod Pathol. 2017;30(s1):112–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Esmeili T, Lozada-Nur F, Epstein J. Common benign oral soft tissue masses. Dent Clin N Am. 2005;49(1):223–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sato M, Tanaka N, Sato T, Amagasa T. Oral and maxillofacial tumours in children: a review. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;35(2):92–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knapp MJ. Oral disease in 181,338 consecutive oral examinations. J Am Dent Assoc. 1971;83(6):1288–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Frigerio M, Martinelli-Kläy CP, Lombardi T. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study of oral squamous papillomas. Acta Odontol Scand. 2015;73(7):508–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bao Z, Yang X, Shi L, Feng J, Liu W, Zhou Z. Clinicopathologic features of oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 197 patients from eastern China. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2012;16(6):454–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carneiro TE, Marinho SA, Verli FD, Mesquita AT, Lima NL, Miranda JL. Oral squamous papilloma: clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. J Oral Sci. 2009;51(3):367–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Houston GD. The giant cell fibroma. A review of 464 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1982;53(6):582–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fitzpatrick SG, Neuman AN, Cohen DM, Bhattacharyya I. Papillary variant of squamous cell carcinoma arising on the gingiva: 61 cases reported from within a larger series of gingival squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7(4):320–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mehrad M, Carpenter DH, Chernock RD, et al. Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: clinicopathologic and molecular features with special reference to human papillomavirus. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37(9):1349–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lacey CJ, Lowndes CM, Shah KV. Chapter 4: Burden and management of non-cancerous HPV-related conditions: HPV-6/11 disease. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):3/35–41.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Panici PB, Scambia G, Perrone L, et al. Oral condyloma lesions in patients with extensive genital human papillomavirus infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167(2):451–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zunt SL, Tomich CE. Oral condyloma acuminatum. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1989;15(6):591–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kui LL, Xiu HZ, Ning LY. Condyloma acuminatum and human papilloma virus infection in the oral mucosa of children. Pediatr Dent. 2003;25(2):149–53.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Squires J, Persaud DI, Simon P, Sinn DP. Oral condylomata in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153(6):651–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carlos R, Sedano HO. Multifocal papilloma virus epithelial hyperplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994;77(6):631–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Archard HO, Heck JW, Stanley HR. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: an unusual oral mucosal lesion found in Indian children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1965;20:201–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Said AK, Leao JC, Fedele S, Porter SR. Focal epithelial hyperplasia—an update. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42(6):435–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bennett LK, Hinshaw M. Heck’s disease: diagnosis and susceptibility. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(1):87–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    García-Corona C, Vega-Memije E, Mosqueda-Taylor A, et al. Association of HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0404) with human papillomavirus infection in patients with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140(10):1227–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pilarski R, Burt R, Kohlman W, Pho L, Shannon KM, Swisher E. Cowden syndrome and the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome: systematic review and revised diagnostic criteria. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(21):1607–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jett K, Friedman JM. Clinical and genetic aspects of neurofibromatosis 1. Genet Med. 2010;12(1):1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kahn MA, Cote GJ, Gagel RF. RET protooncogene mutational analysis in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B: case report and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996;82(3):288–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Patton LL. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Dent Clin N Am. 2013;57(4):673–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Curi DS, Leite-Ribeiro PM, Torregrossa VR, Vieira VC, Sarmento VA. Efficacy of imidazolquinoline on treatment of condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa. Spec Care Dent. 2017;37(1):51–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cheng L, Leibovich BC, Cheville JC, et al. Squamous papilloma of the urinary tract is unrelated to condyloma acuminata. Cancer. 2000;88(7):1679–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sinclair KA, Woods CR, Sinal SH. Venereal warts in children. Pediatr Rev. 2011;32(3):115–21. quiz 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jenny C, Crawford-Jakubiak JE, Neglect, CoCAa, Pediatrics AAo. The evaluation of children in the primary care setting when sexual abuse is suspected. Pediatrics. 2013;132(2):e558–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Blomberg M, Friis S, Munk C, Bautz A, Kjaer SK. Genital warts and risk of cancer: a Danish study of nearly 50 000 patients with genital warts. J Infect Dis. 2012;205(10):1544–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Garland SM, Kjaer SK, Muñoz N, et al. Impact and effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine: a systematic review of 10 years of real-world experience. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):519–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Guo T, Eisele DW, Fakhry C. The potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination on oropharyngeal cancer. Cancer. 2016;122(15):2313–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cyrus N, Blechman AB, Leboeuf M, et al. Effect of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination on oral squamous cell papillomas. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(12):1359–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Health.gov. Healthy People 2020. 2010. https://www.healthypeople.gov/search2/?query=human+papillomavirus+vaccine&op=Go. Accessed 15 Oct 2018.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Perez S, Zimet GD, Tatar O, Stupiansky NW, Fisher WA, Rosberger Z. Human papillomavirus vaccines: successes and future challenges. Drugs. 2018;78(14):1385–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves expanded use of Gardasil 9 to include individuals 27 through 45 years old. USDoHaH. 2018. https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm622715.htm. Accessed 10 Oct 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Anatomic PathologyNaval Medical Center San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations