Frictional Keratosis, Contact Keratosis and Smokeless Tobacco Keratosis: Features of Reactive White Lesions of the Oral Mucosa
White lesions of the oral cavity are quite common and can have a variety of etiologies, both benign and malignant. Although the vast majority of publications focus on leukoplakia and other potentially malignant lesions, most oral lesions that appear white are benign. This review will focus exclusively on reactive white oral lesions. Included in the discussion are frictional keratoses, irritant contact stomatitis, and smokeless tobacco keratoses. Leukoedema and hereditary genodermatoses that may enter in the clinical differential diagnoses of frictional keratoses including white sponge nevus and hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis will be reviewed. Many products can result in contact stomatitis. Dentrifice-related stomatitis, contact reactions to amalgam and cinnamon can cause keratotic lesions. Each of these lesions have microscopic findings that can assist in patient management.
KeywordsLeukoplakia Frictional keratosis Smokeless tobacco keratosis Stomatitis Leukoedema Cinnamon
No funding was required for this study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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