Advertisement

Head and Neck Pathology

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 367–377 | Cite as

Selected Giant Cell Rich Lesions of the Temporal Bone

  • Anthony P. Martinez
  • Jorge Torres-Mora
Special Issue: Ear

Abstract

Giant cell rich lesions of the temporal bone encompass a wide spectrum of disease that includes infectious, reactive, and neoplastic processes. When dealing with any lesion that can potentially involve bone, it is important to understand both the clinical presentation and to correlate the histologic findings with the radiologic imaging. This review discusses the clinical, the pathologic features including the differential diagnosis, and the treatment of some of the more commonly encountered giant cell rich entities in this region.

Keywords

Temporal bone Sarcoidosis Chondroblastoma Tenosynovial giant cell tumor Giant cell reparative granuloma Langerhans cell histiocytosis 

References

  1. 1.
    Yu RC, Chu C, Buluwela L, Chu AC. Clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Lancet. 1994;343(8900):767–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Willman CL, Busque L, Griffith BB, Favara BE, McClain KL, Duncan MH, et al. Langerhans’-cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X)--a clonal proliferative disease. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(3):154–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coppes-Zantinga A, Egeler RM. The Langerhans cell histiocytosis X files revealed. Br J Haematol. 2002;116(1):3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hicks J, Flaitz CM. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: current insights in a molecular age with emphasis on clinical oral and maxillofacial pathology practice. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;100(2 Suppl):S42–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abla O, Egeler RM, Weitzman S. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: current concepts and treatments. Cancer Treat Rev. 2010;36(4):354–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stalemark H, Laurencikas E, Karis J, Gavhed D, Fadeel B, Henter JI. Incidence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children: a population-based study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51(1):76–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campos MK, Viana MB, de Oliveira BM, Ribeiro DD, Silva CM. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a 16-year experience. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2007;83(1):79–86.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bernstrand C, Sandstedt B, Ahstrom L, Henter JI. Long-term follow-up of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: 39 years’ experience at a single centre. Acta Paediatr. 2005;94(8):1073–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernandez-Latorre F, Menor-Serrano F, Alonso-Charterina S, Arenas-Jimenez J. Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis of the temporal bone in pediatric patients: imaging and follow-up. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174(1):217–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCaffrey TV, McDonald TJ. Histiocytosis X of the ear and temporal bone: review of 22 cases. Laryngoscope. 1979;89(11):1735–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Modest MC, Garcia JJ, Arndt CS, Carlson ML. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the temporal bone: a review of 29 cases at a single center. Laryngoscope. 2016;126(8):1899–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Majumder A, Wick CC, Collins R, Booth TN, Isaacson B, Kutz JW. Pediatric Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the lateral skull base. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;99:135–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ginat DT, Johnson DN, Cipriani NA. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the temporal bone. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10(2):209–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abdel-Aziz M, Rashed M, Khalifa B, Talaat A, Nassar A. Eosinophilic granuloma of the temporal bone in children. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25(3):1076–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koch BL. Langerhans histiocytosis of temporal bone: role of magnetic resonance imaging. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2000;11(1):66–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haupt R, Minkov M, Astigarraga I, Schafer E, Nanduri V, Jubran R, et al. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH): guidelines for diagnosis, clinical work-up, and treatment for patients till the age of 18 years. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(2):175–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shanmugam V, Craig JW, Hornick JL, Morgan EA, Pinkus GS, Pozdnyakova O. Cyclin D1 Is expressed in neoplastic cells of Langerhans cell histiocytosis but not reactive Langerhans cell proliferations. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41(10):1390–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murakami I, Gogusev J, Fournet JC, Glorion C, Jaubert F. Detection of molecular cytogenetic aberrations in langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone. Hum Pathol. 2002;33(5):555–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weintraub M, Bhatia KG, Chandra RS, Magrath IT, Ladisch S. p53 expression in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1998;20(1):12–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Badalian-Very G, Vergilio JA, Degar BA, MacConaill LE, Brandner B, Calicchio ML, et al. Recurrent BRAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2010;116(11):1919–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roden AC, Hu X, Kip S, Parrilla Castellar ER, Rumilla KM, Vrana JA, et al. BRAF V600E expression in Langerhans cell histiocytosis: clinical and immunohistochemical study on 25 pulmonary and 54 extrapulmonary cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38(4):548–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chakraborty R, Hampton OA, Shen X, Simko SJ, Shih A, Abhyankar H, et al. Mutually exclusive recurrent somatic mutations in MAP2K1 and BRAF support a central role for ERK activation in LCH pathogenesis. Blood. 2014;124(19):3007–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kong YY, Kong JC, Shi DR, Lu HF, Zhu XZ, Wang J, et al. Cutaneous rosai-dorfman disease: a clinical and histopathologic study of 25 cases in China. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31(3):341–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Janssen D, Harms D. Juvenile xanthogranuloma in childhood and adolescence: a clinicopathologic study of 129 patients from the kiel pediatric tumor registry. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(1):21–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ruocco E, Gambardella A, Langella GG, Lo Schiavo A, Ruocco V. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: an intriguing model of immune dysregulation. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54(1):1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schurmann M, Lympany PA, Reichel P, Muller-Myhsok B, Wurm K, Schlaak M, et al. Familial sarcoidosis is linked to the major histocompatibility complex region. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(3 Pt 1):861–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Newman LS, Rose CS, Bresnitz EA, Rossman MD, Barnard J, Frederick M, et al. A case control etiologic study of sarcoidosis: environmental and occupational risk factors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170(12):1324–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cummings MM, Hudgins PC. Chemical constituents of pine pollen and their possible relationship to sarcoidosis. Am J Med Sci. 1958;236(3):311–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gazouli M, Ikonomopoulos J, Koundourakis A, Bartos M, Pavlik I, Overduin P, et al. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Greek patients with sarcoidosis by Spoligotyping. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(9):4858–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gazouli M, Ikonomopoulos J, Trigidou R, Foteinou M, Kittas C, Gorgoulis V. Assessment of mycobacterial, propionibacterial, and human herpesvirus 8 DNA in tissues of greek patients with sarcoidosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40(8):3060–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nishiwaki T, Yoneyama H, Eishi Y, Matsuo N, Tatsumi K, Kimura H, et al. Indigenous pulmonary Propionibacterium acnes primes the host in the development of sarcoid-like pulmonary granulomatosis in mice. Am J Pathol. 2004;165(2):631–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thomas KW, Hunninghake GW. Sarcoidosis. JAMA. 2003;289(24):3300–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lazarus A. Sarcoidosis: epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and genetics. Dis Mon. 2009;55(11):649–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fernandez-Faith E, McDonnell J. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: differential diagnosis. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25(3):276–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dalley RW, Robertson WD, Nugent RA. Computed tomography of calvarial and petrous bone sarcoidosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1987;11(5):884–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rootjes PA, Rozemeijer W, Dutilh JC. A patient with sarcoidosis and a cryptococcal infection of the skull. Med J Aust. 2016;204(9):353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scheer M, Rabbels J, Neugebauer J, Cornely OA, Drebber U, Zoeller JE. Combined intra- and extracranial cryptococcal infection of a 20-year-old patient in right temporal area. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69(1):222–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ng M, Niparko JK. Osseous sarcoidosis presenting as a destructive petrous apex lesion. Am J Otolaryngol. 2002;23(4):241–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Verse T, Pirsig W, Heymer B. A case of sarcoidosis of the mastoid. Laryngorhinootologie. 1997;76(5):312–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kiess AP, Wang H, Travis WD, Yahalom J. Sarcoid in cancer patients: clinical characteristics and associated disease status. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2015;32(3):200–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cohen PR, Kurzrock R. Sarcoidosis and malignancy. Clin Dermatol. 2007;25(3):326–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Folpe AL, Weiss SW, Fletcher CD, Gown AM. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors: evidence for a desmin-positive dendritic cell subpopulation. Mod Pathol. 1998;11(10):939–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jaffe HL, Lichtenstein L, Sutro CJ. Pigmented villonodular synovitis, bursitis, and tenosynovitis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1941;31:731–65.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Boland JM, Folpe AL, Hornick JL, Grogg KL. Clusterin is expressed in normal synoviocytes and in tenosynovial giant cell tumors of localized and diffuse types: diagnostic and histogenetic implications. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33(8):1225–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Carlson ML, Osetinsky LM, Alon EE, Inwards CY, Lane JI, Moore EJ. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors of the temporomandibular joint and lateral skull base: review of 11 cases. Laryngoscope. 2016.  https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.26435 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oda Y, Izumi T, Harimaya K, Segawa Y, Ishihara S, Komune S, et al. Pigmented villonodular synovitis with chondroid metaplasia, resembling chondroblastoma of the bone: a report of three cases. Mod Pathol. 2007;20(5):545–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Damodar D, Chan N, Kokot N. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the temporomandibular joint: case report and review of the literature. Head Neck. 2015;37(12):E194–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Eisig S, Dorfman HD, Cusamano RJ, Kantrowitz AB. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the temporomandibular joint. Case report and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;73(3):328–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fisher M, Biddinger P, Folpe AL, McKinnon B. Chondroid tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the temporal bone. Otol Neurotol. 2013;34(6):e49-50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fletcher CDM. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. Lyon: IARC Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Monaghan H, Salter DM, Al-Nafussi A. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath (localised nodular tenosynovitis): clinicopathological features of 71 cases. J Clin Pathol. 2001;54(5):404–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ushijima M, Hashimoto H, Tsuneyoshi M, Enjoji M. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (nodular tenosynovitis). A study of 207 cases to compare the large joint group with the common digit group. Cancer. 1986;57(4):875–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    West RB, Rubin BP, Miller MA, Subramanian S, Kaygusuz G, Montgomery K, et al. A landscape effect in tenosynovial giant-cell tumor from activation of CSF1 expression by a translocation in a minority of tumor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(3):690–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brahmi M, Vinceneux A, Cassier PA. Current systemic treatment options for tenosynovial giant cell tumor/pigmented villonodular synovitis: targeting the CSF1/CSF1R axis. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2016;17(2):10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Xie GP, Jiang N, Liang CX, Zeng JC, Chen ZY, Xu Q, et al. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: a retrospective multicenter study of 237 cases. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):e0121451.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Palmerini E, Staals EL, Maki RG, Pengo S, Cioffi A, Gambarotti M, et al. Tenosynovial giant cell tumour/pigmented villonodular synovitis: outcome of 294 patients before the era of kinase inhibitors. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51(2):210–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Park SW, Kim JH, Park JH, Moon KC, Paeng JC, Choi BS, et al. Temporal bone chondroblastoma: imaging characteristics with pathologic correlation. Head Neck. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.24880 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dahlin DC, Ivins JC. Benign chondroblastoma. A study of 125 cases. Cancer. 1972;30(2):401–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Edel G, Ueda Y, Nakanishi J, Brinker KH, Roessner A, Blasius S, et al. Chondroblastoma of bone. A clinical, radiological, light and immunohistochemical study. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1992;421(4):355–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Codman EA. The classic: epiphyseal chondromatous giant cell tumors of the upper end of the humerus. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1931;52:543. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;450:12–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jaffe HL, Lichtenstein L. Benign chondroblastoma of bone: a reinterpretation of the so-called calcifying or chondromatous giant cell tumor. Am J Pathol. 1942;18(6):969–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schajowicz F, Gallardo H. Epiphysial chondroblastoma of bone. A clinico-pathological study of sixty-nine cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1970;52(2):205–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lin PP, Thenappan A, Deavers MT, Lewis VO, Yasko AW. Treatment and prognosis of chondroblastoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005;438:103–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Demirhan H, Acioglu E, Durna YM, Yigit O, Bozkurt ER, Karagoz Y. Temporal bone localized chondroblastoma. J Craniofac Surg. 2015;26(8):e689-90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yollu U, Ibrahimov M, Aslan M, Yilmaz YZ, Yener M, Karaman E. Chondroblastoma of the temporal bone. J Craniofac Surg. 2013;24(4):1495–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ramappa AJ, Lee FY, Tang P, Carlson JR, Gebhardt MC, Mankin HJ. Chondroblastoma of bone. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000;82-A(8):1140–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Weiss AP, Dorfman HD. S-100 protein in human cartilage lesions. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68(4):521–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cocchia D, Lauriola L, Stolfi VM, Tallini G, Michetti F. S-100 antigen labels neoplastic cells in liposarcoma and cartilaginous tumours. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1983;402(2):139–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Konishi E, Nakashima Y, Iwasa Y, Nakao R, Yanagisawa A. Immunohistochemical analysis for Sox9 reveals the cartilaginous character of chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma of the bone. Hum Pathol. 2010;41(2):208–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Akpalo H, Lange C, Zustin J. Discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumour 1 (DOG1): a useful immunohistochemical marker for diagnosing chondroblastoma. Histopathology. 2012;60(7):1099–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bousdras K, O’Donnell P, Vujovic S, Henderson S, Boshoff C, Flanagan AM. Chondroblastomas but not chondromyxoid fibromas express cytokeratins: an unusual presentation of a chondroblastoma in the metaphyseal cortex of the tibia. Histopathology. 2007;51(3):414–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cleven AH, Hocker S, Briaire-de Bruijn I, Szuhai K, Cleton-Jansen AM, Bovee JV. Mutation analysis of H3F3A and H3F3B as a diagnostic tool for giant cell tumor of bone and chondroblastoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015;39(11):1576–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Amary MF, Berisha F, Mozela R, Gibbons R, Guttridge A, O’Donnell P, et al. The H3F3 K36M mutant antibody is a sensitive and specific marker for the diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Histopathology. 2016;69(1):121–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tiefenboeck TM, Stockhammer V, Panotopoulos J, Lang S, Sulzbacher I, Windhager R, et al. Complete local tumor control after curettage of chondroblastoma-a retrospective analysis. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2016;102(4):473–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Xie C, Jeys L, James SL. Radiofrequency ablation of chondroblastoma: long-term clinical and imaging outcomes. Eur Radiol. 2015;25(4):1127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mashhour MA, Abdel Rahman M. Lower recurrence rate in chondroblastoma using extended curettage and cryosurgery. Int Orthop. 2014;38(5):1019–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bertoni F, Unni KK, Beabout JW, Harner SG, Dahlin DC. Chondroblastoma of the skull and facial bones. Am J Clin Pathol. 1987;88(1):1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    El-Naggar AK, Chan JKC, Grandis JR, Takata T, Slootweg PJ. WHO classification of head and neck tumours. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2017.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jaffe HL. Giant-cell reparative granuloma, traumatic bone cyst, and fibrous (fibro-oseous) dysplasia of the jawbones. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1953;6(1):159–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hirschl S, Katz A. Giant cell reparative granuloma outside the jaw bone. Diagnostic criteria and review of the literature with the first case described in the temporal bone. Hum Pathol. 1974;5(2):171–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dimitrakopoulos I, Lazaridis N, Sakellariou P, Asimaki A. Giant-cell granuloma in the temporal bone: a case report and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64(3):531–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ma Y, Liu L, Huang D, Han D, Wang J, Wu W, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone: report of eight cases. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132(6):657–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yu JL, Qu LM, Wang J, Huang HY. Giant cell reparative granuloma in the temporal bone of the skull base: report of two cases. Skull Base. 2010;20(6):443–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Van Buren N, Buchmann L, Gurgel R, Shelton C. Giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone. Otol Neurotol. 2014;35(7):e211–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nackos JS, Wiggins RH 3rd, Harnsberger HR. CT and MR imaging of giant cell granuloma of the craniofacial bones. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(8):1651–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Amary F, Berisha F, Ye H, Gupta M, Gutteridge A, Baumhoer D, et al. H3F3A (Histone 3.3) G34W immunohistochemistry: a reliable marker defining benign and malignant giant cell tumor of bone. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41(8):1059–68.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Agaram NP, LeLoarer FV, Zhang L, Hwang S, Athanasian EA, Hameed M, et al. USP6 gene rearrangements occur preferentially in giant cell reparative granulomas of the hands and feet but not in gnathic location. Hum Pathol. 2014;45(6):1147–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Oliveira AM, Perez-Atayde AR, Inwards CY, Medeiros F, Derr V, Hsi BL, et al. USP6 and CDH11 oncogenes identify the neoplastic cell in primary aneurysmal bone cysts and are absent in so-called secondary aneurysmal bone cysts. Am J Pathol. 2004;165(5):1773–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Auclair PL, Cuenin P, Kratochvil FJ, Slater LJ, Ellis GL. A clinical and histomorphologic comparison of the central giant cell granuloma and the giant cell tumor. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1988;66(2):197–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bird P, Souter M. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone treated with Calcitonin--10 years on. Otol Neurotol. 2015;36(7):1296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wiles AB, Dilustro JF, Moody Antonio SA. Congenital giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137(9):942–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bredell M, Rordorf T, Kroiss S, Rucker M, Zweifel DF, Rostetter C. Denosumab as a treatment alternative for central giant cell granuloma: a long-term retrospective cohort study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2017.09.013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations