Head and Neck Pathology

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 88–109 | Cite as

Sinonasal Tract and Nasopharyngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 86 Cases

  • Lester D. R. ThompsonEmail author
  • Carla Penner
  • Ngoc J. Ho
  • Robert D. Foss
  • Markku Miettinen
  • Jacqueline A. Wieneke
  • Christopher A. Moskaluk
  • Edward B. Stelow
Original Research


Primary sinonasal tract and nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinomas (STACC) are uncommon tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. Eighty-six cases of STACC included 45 females and 41 males, aged 12–91 years (mean 54.4 years). Patients presented most frequently with obstructive symptoms (n = 54), followed by epistaxis (n = 23), auditory symptoms (n = 12), nerve symptoms (n = 11), nasal discharge (n = 11), and/or visual symptoms (n = 10), present for a mean of 18.2 months. The tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 25), nasopharynx alone (n = 13), maxillary sinus alone (n = 4), or a combination of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (n = 44), with a mean size of 3.7 cm. Patients presented equally between low and high stage disease: stage I and II (n = 42) or stage III and IV (n = 44) disease. Histologically, the tumors were invasive (bone: n = 66; neural: n = 47; lymphovascular: n = 33), composed of a variety of growth patterns, including cribriform (n = 33), tubular (n = 16), and solid (n = 9), although frequently a combination of these patterns was seen within a single tumor. Pleomorphism was mild with an intermediate N:C ratio in cells containing hyperchromatic nuclei. Reduplicated basement membrane and glycosaminoglycan material was commonly seen. Necrosis (n = 16) and atypical mitotic figures (n = 11) were infrequently present. Pleomorphic adenoma was present in 9 cases; de-differentiation was seen in two patients. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reactions for pan-cytokeratin, CK7, CK5/6, CAM5.2, and EMA, with myoepithelial reactivity with SMA, p63, calponin, S100 protein and SMMHC. CD117, CEA, GFAP and p16 were variably present. CK20 and HR HPV were negative. STACC needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of most sinonasal malignancies, particularly poorly differentiated carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma and pleomorphic adenoma. Surgery (n = 82), often accompanied by radiation therapy (n = 36), was generally employed. A majority of patients developed a recurrence (n = 52) 2–144 months after initial presentation. Overall mean follow-up was 19.4 years (range 0.4–37.5 years): 46 patients died with disease (mean 6.4 years); 5 were alive with disease (mean 5.4 years), and 35 patients were either alive or had died of unrelated causes (mean 16.3 years). ACC of the SNT is uncommon. Recurrences are common. The following parameters, when present, suggest an increased incidence of either recurrence or dying with disease: mixed site of involvement, high stage disease (stage IV), skull base involvement, tumor recurrence, a solid histology, perineural invasion, bone invasion, and lymphovascular invasion.


Adenoid cystic carcinoma Paranasal sinuses Nasal cavity Staging Prognosis Histology Immunohistochemistry 



The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of Southern California Permanente Medical Group. A special thanks to Ms. Hannah Herrera for her research assistance.


  1. 1.
    Eveson JW. Salivary gland-type carcinomas. In: Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. Pathology and genetics: head and neck tumours. Lyon: IARC Press; 2005. p. 24–5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Franchi A, Santucci M, Wenig BM. Adenocarcinoma. In: Barnes EL, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. Pathology and genetics head and neck tumours. Lyon: IARC Press; 2005. p. 20–3.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kleinsasser O, Schroeder HG. Adenocarcinomas of the inner nose after exposure to wood dust. Morphological findings and relationships between histopathology and clinical behavior in 79 cases. Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1988;245:1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnes L. Intestinal-type adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:192–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gnepp DR, Heffner DK. Mucosal origin of sinonasal tract adenomatous neoplasms. Mod Pathol. 1989;2:365–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lupinetti AD, Roberts DB, Williams MD, Kupferman ME, Rosenthal DI, Demonte F, et al. Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Cancer. 2007;110:2726–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rhee CS, Won TB, Lee CH, Min YG, Sung MW, Kim KH, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: treatment results. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:982–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ang KK, Jiang GL, Frankenthaler RA, Kaanders JH, Garden AS, Delclos L, et al. Carcinomas of the nasal cavity. Radiother Oncol. 1992;24:163–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benazzou S, Arkha Y, Boulaadas M, Derraz S, Essakali L, Kzadri M. Nasal adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial extension. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:1026–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhattacharyya N. Factors predicting survival for cancer of the ethmoid sinus. Am J Rhinol. 2002;16:281–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhattacharyya N. Survival and staging characteristics for non-squamous cell malignancies of the maxillary sinus. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:334–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boland JM, McPhail ED, Garcia JJ, Lewis JE, Schembri-Wismayer DJ. Detection of human papilloma virus and p16 expression in high-grade adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Mod Pathol. 2012;25(4):529–36.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bridger MW, Beale FA, Bryce DP. Carcinom of the paranasal sinuses–a review of 158 cases. J Otolaryngol. 1978;7:379–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buffoli A, Olivetti L, Micheletti E, Facchetti F, Moretti R. Degree of malignancy of maxillary sinus cylindromas in relation to histologic characteristics. Tumori. 1982;68:127–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cantu G, Solero CL, Mariani L, Salvatori P, Mattavelli F, Pizzi N, et al. Anterior craniofacial resection for malignant ethmoid tumors–a series of 91 patients. Head Neck. 1999;21:185–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cantu G, Bimbi G, Miceli R, Mariani L, Colombo S, Riccio S, et al. Lymph node metastases in malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses: prognostic value and treatment. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:170–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carinci F, Curioni C, Padula E, Calearo C. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a new staging system. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;25:34–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carrau RL, Petruzzelli G, Cass SP. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;112:501–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Caruso VG, Roncace EA, Brennan MT. Cylindroma of the sphenoid sinus. A study of two cases. Trans Pa Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1973;26:32–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen AM, Daly ME, Bucci MK, Xia P, Akazawa C, Quivey JM, et al. Carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity treated with radiotherapy at a single institution over five decades: are we making improvement? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:141–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen AY, Stewart MG. Pathologic quiz case 1. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the ethmoid sinus. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;121:1320–3.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chilla R, Schroth R, Eysholdt U, Droese M. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Controllable and uncontrollable factors in treatment and prognosis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1980;42:346–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cimino-Mathews A, Lin BM, Chang SS, Boahene KD, Bishop JA. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity. Head Neck Pathol. 2011;5:405–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Combs SE, Konkel S, Schulz-Ertner D, Munter MW, Debus J, Huber PE, et al. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses: clinical benefit for complex shaped target volumes. Radiat Oncol. 2006;1:23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Daly ME, Chen AM, Bucci MK, El-Sayed I, Xia P, Kaplan MJ, et al. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67:151–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    David SS. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. J Indian Med Assoc. 1976;66:15–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deb T, Thingbaijam S, Devi HP, Singh MM, Singh TH, Sanasam JC. Sinonasal and nasopharyngeal adenoidcystic carcinoma: report of four cases. J Indian Med Assoc. 2004;102:104.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Delbouck C, Roper N, Aubert C, Souchay C, Choufani G, Hassid S. Unusual presentation of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary antrum. B-ENT. 2009;5:265–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Demonte F, Ginsberg LE, Clayman GL. Primary malignant tumors of the sphenoidal sinus. Neurosurgery. 2000;46:1084–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dickhoff P, Wallace CJ, MacRae ME, Campbell WN. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: an unusual sellar mass. Can Assoc Radiol J. 1993;44:393–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dolan EJ, Schwartz ML, Lewis AJ, Kassel EE, Cooper PW. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: an unusual neurosurgical entity. Can J Neurol Sci. 1985;12:65–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Douglas JG, Laramore GE, ustin-Seymour M, Koh WJ, Lindsley KL, Cho P, et al. Neutron radiotherapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma of minor salivary glands. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996;36:87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ellis ER, Million RR, Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Cassisi NJ. The use of radiation therapy in the management of minor salivary gland tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;15:613–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferguson MJ, Dewar JA. Locally recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left antrum: response to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2001;13:236–7.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fordice J, Kershaw C, El Naggar A, Goepfert H. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck: predictors of morbidity and mortality. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:149–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Freeman SR, Sloan P. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum with adenoid cystic and squamous carcinomatous differentiation. Rhinology. 2003;41:118–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fukuda S, Sakai N, Kamata SE, Nameki H, Kishimoto S, Nishikawa N et al. Surgical results of skull base surgery for the treatment of head and neck malignancies involving skull base: multi-institutional studies on 143 cases in Japan. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28(Suppl):S71–5.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gil Z, Carlson DL, Gupta A, Lee N, Hoppe B, Shah JP, et al. Patterns and incidence of neural invasion in patients with cancers of the paranasal sinuses. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;135:173–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goepfert H, Luna MA, Lindberg RD, White AK. Malignant salivary gland tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Arch Otolaryngol. 1983;109:662–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gotte K, Ganssmann S, Affolter A, Schafer C, Riedel F, Arens N, et al. Dual FISH analysis of benign and malignant tumors of the salivary glands and paranasal sinuses. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:1103–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Greenbaum EI, Gunn W, Rappaport I, O’Loughlin BJ. Cylindroma of the maxillary antrum. A case presentation and review of the literature. Radiol Clin Biol. 1970;39:419–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gullane PJ, Conley J. Carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. A correlation of the clinical course with orbital involvement, pterygoid erosion or pterygopalatine invasion and cervical metastases. J Otolaryngol. 1983;12:141–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hara HJ. Cancer of the nasopharynx. Review of the literature. Report of 72 cases. Laryngoscope. 1969;79:1315–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Haraguchi H, Ebihara S, Saikawa M, Mashima K, Haneda T, Hirano K. Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity: review of a 60-case series. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1995;25:188–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Harbo G, Grau C, Bundgaard T, Overgaard M, Elbrond O, Sogaard H, et al. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. A clinico-pathological study of 277 patients. Acta Oncol. 1997;36:45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hawkins RB, Wynstra JH, Pilepich MV, Fields JN. Carcinoma of the nasal cavity–results of primary and adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;15:1129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Higashi K, Jin Y, Johansson M, Heim S, Mandahl N, Biorklund A, et al. Rearrangement of 9p13 as the primary chromosomal aberration in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the respiratory tract. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1991;3:21–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Howard DJ, Lund VJ. Reflections on the management of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1985;93:338–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Howard DJ, Lund VJ. The role of midfacial degloving in modern rhinological practice. J Laryngol Otol. 1999;113:885–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huang M, Ma D, Sun K, Yu G, Guo C, Gao F. Factors influencing survival rate in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;26:435–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Iannetti G, Valentini V, Rinna C, Ventucci E, Marianetti TM. Ethmoido-orbital tumors: our experience. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:1085–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Issing PR, Hemmanouil I, Stover T, Kempf HG, Wilkens L, Heermann R, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the skull base. Skull Base Surg. 1999;9:271–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jan GM, Wani MA, Goswami KC. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of left sphenoidal sinus (case report). Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1989;32:142–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jansen EP, Keus RB, Hilgers FJ, Haas RL, Tan IB, Bartelink H. Does the combination of radiotherapy and debulking surgery favor survival in paranasal sinus carcinoma? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;48:27–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Katz TS, Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Villaret DB. Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Head Neck. 2002;24:821–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kim GE, Park HC, Keum KC, Lee CG, Suh CO, Hur WJ, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary antrum. Am J Otolaryngol. 1999;20:77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    King DT, Cihak RW, Luther PK, Gurevitch AW, Hirose FM. Malignant neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses involving the skin. Arch Dermatol. 1978;114:1681–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kokemuller H, Eckardt A, Brachvogel P, Hausamen JE. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major and minor salivary glands. Retrospective analysis of 74 patients. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 2003;7:94–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Konno A, Ishikawa K, Numata T, Nagata H, Terada N, Okamoto Y. Analysis of factors affecting long-term treatment results of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1998;537:67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kowalski PJ, Paulino AF. Perineural invasion in adenoid cystic carcinoma: its causation/promotion by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:933–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kraus DH, Roberts JK, Medendorp SV, Levine HL, Wood BG, Tucker HM, et al. Nonsquamous cell malignancies of the paranasal sinuses. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990;99:5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kwon RO, Lyon DB, Floyd M, Girod DA. Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma presenting as an orbital mass. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:54–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Le QT, Birdwell S, Terris DJ, Gabalski EC, Varghese A, Fee W Jr, et al. Postoperative irradiation of minor salivary gland malignancies of the head and neck. Radiother Oncol. 1999;52:165–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lee DJ, Smith RR, Spaziani JT, Rostock R, Holliday M, Moses H. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Case reports and literature review. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1985;94:269–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lee WJ, Kapadia SB, Stack BC Jr. Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma with widespread symptomatic bony metastasis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:271–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lloyd S, Yu JB, Wilson LD, Decker RH. Determinants and patterns of survival in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck, including an analysis of adjuvant radiation therapy. Am J Clin Oncol. 2011;34:76–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Loh KS, Barker E, Bruch G, O’Sullivan B, Brown DH, Goldstein DP, et al. Prognostic factors in malignancy of the minor salivary glands. Head Neck. 2009;31:58–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lopez-Gines C, Cerda-Nicolas M, Llombart-Bosch A. Cytogenetic findings in a new case of adenoid cystic carcinoma arising in sphenoidal sinus. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1994;75:150–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Madison ML, Sorenson JM, Samant S, Robertson JH. The treatment of advanced sinonasal malignancies with pre-operative intra-arterial cisplatin and concurrent radiation. J Neurooncol. 2005;72:67–75.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mann W, Schuler-Voith C. Tumors of the paranasal sinuses and the nose: a retrospective study in 136 patients. Rhinology. 1983;21:173–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McMillan MD, Anderson G. Maxillary adenoid cystic carcinoma with annulate lamellae. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1994;18:493–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miller CL, Offutt WN, Kielar RA. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the antrum and epiphora. Am J Ophthalmol. 1977;83:582–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Miller RH, Calcaterra TC. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nose, paranasal sinuses, and palate. Arch Otolaryngol. 1980;106:424–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Myers LL, Nussenbaum B, Bradford CR, Teknos TN, Esclamado RM, Wolf GT. Paranasal sinus malignancies: an 18-year single institution experience. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:1964–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Naficy S, Disher MJ, Esclamado RM. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses. Am J Rhinol. 1999;13:311–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nagao T, Gaffey TA, Serizawa H, Sugano I, Ishida Y, Yamazaki K, et al. Dedifferentiated adenoid cystic carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases. Mod Pathol. 2003;16:1265–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nordgard S, Franzen G, Boysen M, Halvorsen TB. Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in adenoid cystic carcinoma assessed with the monoclonal antibody MIB1 in paraffin sections. Laryngoscope. 1997;107:531–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Oppenheim H, Landau GH, Dorman DW, Mojsejenko I, Sleadd FB. Cylindroma involving the paranasal sinuses. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1968;47:669–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ozsaran Z, Yalman D, Baltalarli B, Anacak Y, Esassolak M, Haydaroglu A. Radiotherapy in maxillary sinus carcinomas: evaluation of 79 cases. Rhinology. 2003;41:44–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Panchal L, Vaideeswar P, Kathpal D, Madiwale CV, Prabhat DP. Sino-nasal epithelial tumours: a pathological study of 69 cases. J Postgrad Med. 2005;51:30–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Parsons JT, Mendenhall WM, Mancuso AA, Cassisi NJ, Million RR. Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;14:11–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Perez AJ, Goyal P. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasal cavity: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2012;91:E22–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Perusse R. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. J Am Dent Assoc. 1997;128:1551–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pitman KT, Prokopakis EP, Aydogan B, Segas J, Carrau RL, Snyderman CH, et al. The role of skull base surgery for the treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sinonasal tract. Head Neck. 1999;21:402–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Poetker DM, Toohill RJ, Loehrl TA, Smith TL. Endoscopic management of sinonasal tumors: a preliminary report. Am J Rhinol. 2005;19:307–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pommier P, Liebsch NJ, Deschler DG, Lin DT, McIntyre JF, Barker FG, et al. Proton beam radiation therapy for skull base adenoid cystic carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:1242–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ramsden D, Sheridan BF, Newton NC, De Wilde FW. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck: a report of 30 cases. Aust N Z J Surg. 1973;43:102–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rudralingam M, Jones K, Woolford TJ. The unilateral opaque maxillary sinus on computed tomography. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;40:504–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sadeghi A, Tran LM, Mark R, Sidrys J, Parker RG. Minor salivary gland tumors of the head and neck: treatment strategies and prognosis. Am J Clin Oncol. 1993;16:3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sato K, Ueda Y, Sakurai A, Ishikawa Y, Kaji S, Nojima T, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus with gradual histologic transformation to high-grade adenocarcinoma: a comparative report with dedifferentiated carcinoma. Virchows Arch. 2006;448:204–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schramm VL Jr, Imola MJ. Management of nasopharyngeal salivary gland malignancy. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1533–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schulz-Ertner D, Didinger B, Nikoghosyan A, Jakel O, Zuna I, Wannenmacher M, et al. Optimization of radiation therapy for locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinomas with infiltration of the skull base using photon intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a carbon ion boost. Strahlenther Onkol. 2003;179:345–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shotton JC, Schmid S, Fisch U. The infratemporal fossa approach for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the skull base and nasopharynx. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1991;24:1445–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sivaji N, Basavaraj S, Stewart W, Dempster J. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasal septum. Rhinology. 2003;41:253–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sofferman RA, Heisse JW Jr. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasopharynx after previous adenoid irradiation. Laryngoscope. 1985;95:458–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Solares CA, Fakhri S, Batra PS, Lee J, Lanza DC. Transnasal endoscopic resection of lesions of the clivus: a preliminary report. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1917–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Spiro RH, Koss LG, Hajdu SI, Strong EW. Tumors of minor salivary origin. A clinicopathologic study of 492 cases. Cancer. 1973;31:117–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Spiro RH, Huvos AG, Strong EW. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: factors influencing survival. Am J Surg. 1979;138:579–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Strick MJ, Kelly C, Soames JV, McLean NR. Malignant tumours of the minor salivary glands–a 20 year review. Br J Plast Surg. 2004;57:624–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sung MW, Kim KH, Kim JW, Min YG, Seong WJ, Roh JL, et al. Clinicopathologic predictors and impact of distant metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:1193–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Takagi D, Fukuda S, Furuta Y, Yagi K, Homma A, Nagahashi T et al. Clinical study of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28(Suppl):S99–102.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Takahashi T, Mitsuhashi N, Sakurai H, Takahashi M, Hirato J, Niibe H. A case report of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasopharynx with aggressive systemic bone metastases. Radiat Med. 1995;13:301–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Taylor JS, Cooley HN, Hicks JJ. Cylindroma of the maxillary antrum. Laryngoscope. 1965;75:1727–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Thorup C, Sebbesen L, Dano H, Leetmaa M, Andersen M, Buchwald C, et al. Carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in Denmark 1995–2004. Acta Oncol. 2010;49:389–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Toluie S, Thompson LD. Sinonasal tract adenoid cystic carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 9 cases combined with a comprehensive review of the literature. Head Neck Pathol. 2012;6:409–21.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tran L, Sidrys J, Horton D, Sadeghi A, Parker RG. Malignant salivary gland tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. The UCLA experience. Am J Clin Oncol. 1989;12:387–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tufano RP, Mokadam NA, Montone KT, Weinstein GS, Chalian AA, Wolf PF, et al. Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses: hospital of the University of Pennsylvania experience 1990–1997. Am J Rhinol. 1999;13:117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Vedrine PO, Thariat J, Merrot O, Percodani J, Dufour X, Choussy O, et al. Primary cancer of the sphenoid sinus–a GETTEC study. Head Neck. 2009;31:388–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Veillon BJ, Raila FA, Fratkin JD, Russell WF. Magnetic resonance imaging of massive intracranial invasion by an ethmoidal adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma). South Med J. 1996;89:321–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wakisaka S, Nonaka A, Morita Y, Fukui M, Kinoshita K. Adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial extension: report of three cases. Neurosurgery. 1990;26:1060–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wang CC, See LC, Hong JH, Tang SG. Nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma: five new cases and a literature review. J Otolaryngol. 1996;25:399–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Weber AL, Stanton AC. Malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses: radiologic, clinical, and histopathologic evaluation of 200 cases. Head Neck Surg. 1984;6:761–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wiseman SM, Popat SR, Rigual NR, Hicks WL Jr, Orner JB, Wein RO, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses or nasal cavity: a 40-year review of 35 cases. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002;81:510–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wolff AP, Ossoff RH, Clemis JD. Four unusual neoplasms of the nasopharynx. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1980;88:753–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wolfowitz BL, Schmaman A. Unusual malignant tumours of the maxillary sinuses. S Afr Med J. 1975;49:387–91.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wolfowitz BL. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses. S Afr Med J. 1971;45:972–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wright ED, Raza SN, Heathcote JG. Atypical diagnostic, endoscopic, and pathologic findings in a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma arising from the sphenoid sinus. J Otolaryngol. 2005;34:226–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Yin ZY, Wu XL, Hu YH, Gu XZ. Cylindroma of the nasopharynx: a chronic disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1986;12:25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Zhang Q, Yang L, Yang AK, Guo ZM. Clinical study on 88 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma in nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;44:311–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kuo YL, Tu TY, Chang CF, Li WY, Chang SY, Shiao AS, et al. Extra-major salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma of the head and neck: a 10-year experience and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268:1035–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shukla NK, Hazarika S, Deo S, Kar M, Kumar S, Samaiya A, et al. Salivary gland tumours: profile and management at a tertiary cancer centre. J Indian Med Assoc. 2011;109:381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Iyer NG, Kim L, Nixon IJ, Palmer F, Kraus D, Shaha AR, et al. Factors predicting outcome in malignant minor salivary gland tumors of the oropharynx. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136:1240–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Licitra L, Locati LD, Bossi P, Cantu G. Head and neck tumors other than squamous cell carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol. 2004;16:236–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lewis JE, Olsen KD, Sebo TJ. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: pathologic analysis of 73 cases. Hum Pathol. 2001;32:596–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nordkvist A, Roijer E, Bang G, Gustafsson H, Behrendt M, Ryd W, et al. Expression and mutation patterns of p53 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. Int J Oncol. 2000;16:477–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gnepp DR. Malignant mixed tumors of the salivary glands: a review. Pathol Annu. 1993;28(Pt 1):279–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Batsakis JG. Neoplasms of the minor and lesser major salivary glands. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1972;135:289–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Spiro RH, Huvos AG. Stage means more than grade in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Am J Surg. 1992;164:623–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Batsakis JG, Rice DH, Solomon AR. The pathology of head and neck tumors: squamous and mucous-gland carcinomas of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and larynx, part 6. Head Neck Surg. 1980;2:497–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Batsakis JG. Mucous gland tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1970;79:557–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Das S, Kirsch CF. Imaging of lumps and bumps in the nose: a review of sinonasal tumours. Cancer Imaging. 2005;5:167–77.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Chang PC, Fischbein NJ, McCalmont TH, Kashani-Sabet M, Zettersten EM, Liu AY, et al. Perineural spread of malignant melanoma of the head and neck: clinical and imaging features. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lloyd G, Lund VJ, Howard D, Savy L. Optimum imaging for sinonasal malignancy. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114:557–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Farman AG, George DI Jr, Clear RM. Computerized tomography of combined carcinomas arising in pleomorphic adenoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985;59:96–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Calearo C, Pastore A, Merlo R. Cancer of the facial mass. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 1987;7(Suppl 14):1–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2009.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Batsakis JG, Luna MA, El-Naggar A. Histopathologic grading of salivary gland neoplasms: III. Adenoid cystic carcinomas. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990;99:1007–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Szanto PA, Luna MA, Tortoledo ME, White RA. Histologic grading of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands. Cancer. 1984;54:1062–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Moskaluk CA. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: clinical and molecular features. Head Neck Pathol. 2013;7:17–22.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Boland JM, McPhail ED, Garcia JJ, Lewis JE, Schembri-Wismayer DJ. Detection of human papilloma virus and p16 expression in high-grade adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:529–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bishop JA, Ogawa T, Stelow EB, Moskaluk CA, Koch WM, Pai SI, et al. Human papillomavirus-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features: a peculiar variant of head and neck cancer restricted to the sinonasal tract. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:836–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ellis GL, Auclair PL. Tumors of the salivary glands, vol. 17. 3rd Series ed. Washington: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1995.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Werning JW, Hinerman RW, Villaret DB. Radiotherapy alone or combined with surgery for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2004;26:154–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Anderson TD, Feldman M, Weber RS, Ziober AF, Ziober BL. Tumor deposition of laminin-5 and the relationship with perineural invasion. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:2140–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Katori H, Nozawa A, Tsukuda M. Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and Ki-67 are associated with malignant transformation of pleomorphic adenoma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34:79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chimona TS, Koutsopoulos AV, Malliotakis P, Nikolidakis A, Skoulakis C, Bizakis JG. Malignant mixed tumor of the nasal cavity. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2006;33:63–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wieneke JA, Thompson LD, Wenig BM. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract. Cancer. 1999;85:841–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Thompson LD. Olfactory neuroblastoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2009;3:252–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Barnes L, Ferlito A, Altavilla G, MacMillan C, Rinaldo A, Doglioni C. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996;105:75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Thompson LD, Seethala RR, Muller S. Ectopic Sphenoid Sinus Pituitary Adenoma (ESSPA) with Normal Anterior Pituitary Gland: a Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 32 Cases with a Comprehensive Review of the English Literature. Head Neck Pathol. 2012;6:75–100.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Perzin KH, Gullane P, Clairmont AC. Adenoid cystic carcinomas arising in salivary glands: a correlation of histologic features and clinical course. Cancer. 1978;42:265–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Diaz EM, Jr., Kies MS. Chemotherapy for skull base cancers. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2001;34:1079–85, viii.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Vrionis FD, Kienstra MA, Rivera M, Padhya TA. Malignant tumors of the anterior skull base. Cancer Control. 2004;11:144–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lester D. R. Thompson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carla Penner
    • 2
  • Ngoc J. Ho
    • 3
  • Robert D. Foss
    • 4
  • Markku Miettinen
    • 5
  • Jacqueline A. Wieneke
    • 6
  • Christopher A. Moskaluk
    • 7
  • Edward B. Stelow
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Southern California Permanente Medical GroupWoodland Hills Medical CenterWoodland HillsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Health Sciences Centre and Faculty of DentistryUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Southern California Permanente Medical GroupPasadenaUSA
  4. 4.Naval Postgraduate Dental SchoolBethesdaUSA
  5. 5.National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  6. 6.Food and Drug AdministrationSilver SpringUSA
  7. 7.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations