Crystal-Storing Histiocytosis: Report of a Case, Review of the Literature (80 Cases) and a Proposed Classification
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We report a case of crystal storing histiocytosis (CSH) of the upper lip and cheek in a 51-year-old woman and review the clinicopathologic features of 80 cases in the literature. These occurred in 41 men and 39 women with a respective mean age of 59 and 61 years (range 17–81 years). Forty-six patients (58%) had localized CSH, and, of these, 16 (35%) occurred in the head and neck, with the most common site being the eye/orbit. The remaining 34 patients (42%) had generalized CSH primarily involving bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, spleen and/or kidney. Regardless of whether the CSH was localized or generalized, the vast majority of patients (90%) had an underlying lymphoproliferative or plasma cell disorder, especially multiple myeloma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. In 7 cases (8.8%), the CSH was associated with a variety of benign disorders, often with an inflammatory background, and no evidence of a clonal lymphoproliferative or plasma cell disorder. Treatment and prognosis varied according to the underlying disease. A classification of CSH based on etiology and/or associated disease and chemical composition of the crystal is proposed, rare non-immunoglobulin variants of CSH are discussed, and a differential diagnosis of other potentially confusing lesions is provided.