I’m Watching You: Cyberstalking Behaviors of University Students in Romantic Relationships
- 1.1k Downloads
As technology has become an ever-present facet in the lives of young people, they have become reliant on it to form and maintain relationships. It has also helped facilitate negative relationship behaviors, such as the monitoring of romantic partners without their permission (aka cyberstalking). The purpose of this study is to investigate theoretical predictors of cyberstalking in a sample of university students by applying General Theory of Crime and Social Learning Theory. Results indicated that low selfcontrol and deviant peer association are significant predictors of cyberstalking, specifically attempting to log-in to a person’s social media, as well as social media presence and sex.
KeywordsCyberstalking Internet Victimization Relationships
- Akers, R. L. (1998). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
- Baum, K., Catalano, S., Rand, M., & Rose, K. (2009). Stalking victimization in the United States. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice. Retrived from http://www.victimsofcrime.org/docs/src/baum-k-catalano-s-rand-m-rose-k-2009.pdf?sfvrsn=0.Google Scholar
- Caughlin, J., & Sharabi, L. (2013). A communicative interdependence perspective of close relationships: The connections between mediated and unmediated interactions matter. Journal of Communication, 63(5), 873–893.Google Scholar
- Corporate Alliance to End Partner Violence. (2016). Stalking. Retrieved from http://www.caepv.org/getinfo/facts_stats.php?factsec=9.
- Cox, C. (2014). Protecting victims of cyberstalking, cyberharassment, and online impersonation through prosecutions and effective laws. The Journal of Law, Science & Technology, 54(3), 277–302.Google Scholar
- Dillman, D. (2007). Mail and internet surveys: A tailored design method. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Duggan, M. (2015). Mobile messaging and social media 2015. PewResearchCenter: Internet, Science, & Tech. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/08/19/mobile-messaging-and-social-media-2015/.
- Elphinston, R., & Noller, P. (2011). Time to face it! Facebook intrusion and implication for romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 17, 3–7.Google Scholar
- Facebook (2016). Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved from http://newsroom.fb.com/company-info/.
- Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Higgins, G., & Marcum, C. D. (2011). Digital piracy: An integrated theoretical approach. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Hinduja, S., & Ingram, J. R. (2008). Self-control and ethical beliefs on the social learning of intellectual property theft. Western Criminology Review, 9, 52–72.Google Scholar
- Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2011). Electronic dating violence: A brief for educators and parents. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.cyberbullying.us/.
- Hirschi, T. (2004). Self-control and crime. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of selfregulation: Research, theory and applications. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kubrin, C. E., Stucky, T. D., & Krohn, M. D. (2009). Researching theories of crime and deviance. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lyndon, A., Bonds-Raacke, J., & Cratty, A. (2011). College students’ Facebook stalking of ex-partners. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13, 263–268.Google Scholar
- Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., & Ricketts, M. L. (2014b). Sexting behaviors among adolescents in rural North Carolina: A theoretical examination of low self-control and deviant peer association. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 8(2), 68–78.Google Scholar
- National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012a). Cyberbullying. Retrieved June 19, 2012, from http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/educ/cyberbullying.aspx.
- National Conference of State Legislatures. (2012b). State Cyberstalking and Cyberharassment Laws. Retrieved June 19, 2012 from http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/telecom/cyberstalking-and-cyberharassment-laws.aspx.
- Papacharissi, Z. (2011). A networked self: Identity, community, and culture on social network sites. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Perrin, A. (2015a). Social media usage: 2005–2015. PewResearchCenter: Internet, Science & Tech. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/10/08/social-networking-usage-2005-2015/.
- Perrin, A. (2015b). Social media usage: 2005–2015. PewResearchCenter: Internet, Science & Tech. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/10/08/social-networking-usage-2005-2015/.
- PEW. (2013). Teens and Technology 2012. Report of the PEW Research Internet ‘Project. Retrieved from www.pewinternet.org/2013/03/13/teens-and-technology-2013.
- Shimizu, A. (2013). Domestic violence in the digital age: Towards the creation of a comprehensive cyberstalking statute. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice, 28(1), 116–137.Google Scholar
- Shorey, R., Sherman, A., Kivisto, A., Elkins, S., Rhatigan, D., & Moore, T. (2011). Gender differences in depression and anxiety among victims of initmate partner violence: the moderating effect of shame-proneness. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 1834–1850. doi: 10.1177/0886260510372949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sutherland, E. (1939). Priniciples of criminology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
- Tibbets, S. G. (2012). Criminological theory: The essentials. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Torres, C., Robles, J., & DeMarco, S. (2013). El ciberacoso como format de ejercer la violencia de genero en la juventud. Un riesgo en la sociedad de la informacion y el conocimiento. Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad 10.Google Scholar
- Wolfe, S. E., & Higgins, G. E. (2009). Explaining deviant peer associations: an examination of low self-control, ethical predispositions, definitions, and digital piracy. Western Criminology Review, 10(1), 43–55.Google Scholar
- Zweig, J., Dank, M., Yahner, J., & Lachman, P. (2013). The rate of cyber dating abuse among teens and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1–15.Google Scholar