Advertisement

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 86, Issue 12, pp 1131–1135 | Cite as

CRISPR-Cas9 Probing of Infectious Diseases and Genetic Disorders

  • Sivaprakash RamalingamEmail author
  • Saravanabhavan ThangavelEmail author
Review Article
  • 184 Downloads

Abstract

The ability to precisely change the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bases at specific sites offers tremendous advantages in the field of molecular biology and medical biotechnology. Identification of Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), revelation of its role in prokaryotic adaptive immunity and subsequent conversion into genome and epigenome engineering system are the landmark research progresses of the decade. The possibilities of deciphering the molecular mechanisms of the disease, identifying the disease targets, generating the disease models, validating the drug targets, developing resistance to the infection and correcting the genotype have brought off much enthusiasm in the field of infectious diseases and genetic disorders. This review focuses on CRISPR/Cas9’s impact in the field of infection and genetic disorders.

Keywords

Targeted genome engineering/editing Zinc finger nucleases Transcription activator-like effector nucleases Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas9) Infectious diseases and genetic disorders 

Notes

Authors’ Contribution

SR and ST wrote the manuscript. SR is the guarantor for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

None.

Source of Funding

SR acknowledges Department of Biotechnology for the financial support. ST is supported by SERB (ECR/2015/000570) and Department of biotechnology (BT/PR26901/MED/31/377/2017).

References

  1. 1.
    Durai S, Mani M, Kandavelou K, Wu J, Porteus MH, Chandrasegaran S. Zinc finger nucleases: custom-designed molecular scissors for genome engineering of plant and mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5978–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jiang F, Doudna JA. CRISPR-Cas9 structures and mechanisms. Annu Rev Biophys. 2017;46:505–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ishino Y, Shinagawa H, Makino K, Amemura M, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion in Escherichia coli, and identification of the gene product. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:5429–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barrangou R, Doudna JA. Applications of CRISPR technologies in research and beyond. Nat Biotechnol. 2016;34:933–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mali P, Yang L, Esvelt KM, et al. RNA-guided human genome engineering via Cas9. Science. 2013;339:823–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cong L, Ran FA, Cox D, et al. Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems. Science. 2013;339:819–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu JJ, Orlova N, Oakes BL, et al. CasX enzymes comprise a distinct family of RNA-guided genome editors. Nature. 2019;566:218–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang T, Wei JJ, Sabatini DM, Lander ES. Genetic screens in human cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Science. 2014;343:80–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Virreira Winter S, Zychlinsky A, Bardoel BW. Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals novel host factors required for Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin-mediated toxicity. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Strutt SC, Torrez RM, Kaya E, Negrete OA, Doudna JA. RNA-dependent RNA targeting by CRISPR-Cas9. Elife. 2018;7:pii:e32724.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pardee K, Green AA, Takahashi MK, et al. Rapid, low-cost detection of Zika virus using programmable biomolecular components. Cell. 2016;165:1255–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guk K, Keem JO, Hwang SG, et al. A facile, rapid and sensitive detection of MRSA using a CRISPR-mediated DNA FISH method, antibody-like dCas9/sgRNA complex. Biosens Bioelectron. 2017;95:67–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gootenberg JS, Abudayyeh OO, Lee JW, et al. Nucleic acid detection with CRISPR-Cas13a/C2c2. Science. 2017;356:438–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen JS, Ma E, Harrington LB, et al. CRISPR-Cas12a target binding unleashes indiscriminate single-stranded DNase activity. Science. 2018;360:436–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li H, Sheng C, Wang S, et al. Removal of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA using CRISPR-Cas9. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Strich JR, Chertow DS. CRISPR-Cas biology and its application to infectious diseases. J Clin Microbiol. 2019;57: ISSN: 1098-660x.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tebas P, Stein D, Tang WW, et al. Gene editing of CCR5 in autologous CD4 T cells of persons infected with HIV. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:901–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soldner F, Hockemeyer D, Beard C, et al. Parkinson's disease patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells free of viral reprogramming factors. Cell. 2009;136:964–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ebert AD, Yu J, Rose FF Jr, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cells from a spinal muscular atrophy patient. Nature. 2009;457:277–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niu Y, Shen B, Cui Y, et al. Generation of gene-modified cynomolgus monkey via Cas9/RNA-mediated gene targeting in one-cell embryos. Cell. 2014;156:836–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sato K, Oiwa R, Kumita W, et al. Generation of a nonhuman primate model of severe combined immunodeficiency using highly efficient genome editing. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:127–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ohmori T, Nagao Y, Mizukami H, et al. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing via postnatal administration of AAV vector cures haemophilia B mice. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DeWitt MA, Magis W, Bray NL, et al. Selection-free genome editing of the sickle mutation in human adult hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Sci Transl Med. 2016;8:360ra134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ramalingam S, Annaluru N, Kandavelou K, Chandrasegaran S. TALEN-mediated generation and genetic correction of disease-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells. Curr Gene Ther. 2014;14:461–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pavel-Dinu M, Wiebking V, Dejene BT, et al. Author correction: gene correction for SCID-X1 in long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Commun. 2019;10:2021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schubert MS, Cedrone E, Neun B, Behlke MA, Dobrovolskaia MA. Chemical modification of CRISPR gRNAs eliminate type I interferon responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Cytokine Biol. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2576-3881.1000121.

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR Institute for Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Center for Stem Cell Research (CSCR), A Unit of inStem BengaluruChristian Medical College CampusVelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations