Prevention and Control of Anemia Amongst Children and Adolescents: Theory and Practice in India
- 34 Downloads
Anemia is a major public health problem in India with prevalence of more than 50% amongst children and adolescents. The decline in the burden of anemia has been insignificant over the past 5 decades. The present review assesses the National Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Anemia in India, the current status of the program implementation and possible reasons for the continued high prevalence of anemia in the country.
KeywordsAnemia Iron Folic acid Adolescents Children
UK, RK and AG: Concept and design and preparation of the manuscript. UK is the guarantor for this article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
- 1.GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018;392:1789–858.Google Scholar
- 2.World Health Organization. The Global Prevalence of Anaemia in 2011. WHO Report; 2015.Google Scholar
- 4.Pollitt E. Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Function. Annu Rev Nutr. 1993;13:521–37.Google Scholar
- 5.National Institute of Nutrition; Indian Council of Medical Research. Community studies using common salt fortified with iron. Annual Report; 1978.Google Scholar
- 6.Rao KV, Radhaiah G, Raju SV. Association of growth status and the prevalence of anaemia in preschool children. Indian J Med Res. 1980;71:237–46.Google Scholar
- 8.National Institute of Nutrition; Indian Council of Medical Research. National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau: Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies: NNMB Technical Report No. 22. 2003.Google Scholar
- 9.Government of India. Annual Health Survey: Clinical, Anthropometric and Bio-chemical (CAB) Survey; 2014.Google Scholar
- 15.World Health Organization. Adolescent nutrition: a review of the situation in selected south-east Asian countries. New Delhi: Reg Off South-East Asia; 2006. p. 1–96.Google Scholar
- 18.Ramakrishnan U. Nutritional Anemias. USA: CRC Press; 2001.Google Scholar
- 19.Seshadri S, Gopaldas T. Impact of iron supplementation on cognitive functions in preschool and school-aged children: the Indian experience. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50:675–84,85–6.Google Scholar
- 21.Pollitt E, Hathirat P, Kotchabhakdi NJ, Missell L, Valyasevi A. Iron deficiency and educational achievement in Thailand. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50:687–96,96–7.Google Scholar
- 22.Soekarjo DD, de Pee S, Kusin JA, Bloem MW. School-based supplementation: lessons learned in Indonesia. SCN News. UK: United Nations System; 2006. p. 14–8.Google Scholar
- 25.UNICEF/UNU/WHO. Iron deficiency anaemia assessment, prevention, and control: a guide for programme managers. 2001. Available at: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/anaemia_iron_deficiency/WHO_NHD_01.3/en/. Accessed 1 Jan 2019.
- 26.Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Guidelines for Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia. National Iron Plus Initiative; 2013.Google Scholar
- 27.Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Anemia Mukt Bharat: Intensified National Iron Plus Initiative; 2018. Available at: https://anemiamuktbharat.info/dashboard/#/. Accessed 1 Jan 2019.
- 29.National Institute of Nutrition. Nutrient Requirements and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Indians. Indian Council of Medical Research; 2010.Google Scholar
- 32.Coffey D. Working Paper: Sanitation Externalities, Disease, and Children’s Anemia. 2014. Available at: https://paa2014.princeton.edu/papers/140309. Accessed 1 Jan 2019.
- 36.National Health Mission. Government of India. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) [Internet]. Available at: http://nhm.gov.in/communitisation/asha/about-asha.html. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
- 40.Rudinskas L, Paton TW, Walker SE, Dotten DA, Cowan DH. Poor clinical response to enteric-coated iron preparations. CMAJ. 1989;141:565–6.Google Scholar
- 43.Sachdev HPS, Kurpad A, Saxena R, Kapil U. National expert group technical consultation on prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Indian J Comm Health. 2018;30:1–11.Google Scholar
- 44.Singh HS, Roychowdhury S, Verma P, Bhandari V. A review on recent advances of enteric coating. IOSR J Pharm. 2012;2:5–11.Google Scholar
- 45.World Health Organization. Guideline: Daily Iron Supplementation in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls; 2016. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/204712/9789241549523_eng.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 1 Jan 2019.
- 47.Low MS, Speedy J, Styles CE, De-Regil LM, Pasricha SR. Daily iron supplementation for improving anaemia, iron status and health in menstruating women (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD009747.Google Scholar
- 48.Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Cochrane Collab. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011. Available at: https://training.cochrane.org/handbook. Accessed 1 Jan 2019.
- 50.Lazzerini M, Wanzira H. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;12:CD005436.Google Scholar