Upper and Lower Body Segment Ratios from Birth to 18 years in Children from Western Maharashtra
To assess the upper body segment (US), lower body segment (LS) and US:LS ratio for children from birth to 18 y of age and to compare these data with other US:LS ratio norms from previously reported studies.
A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in children [birth to 18 y; n = 5454 children (3158 boys)] residing in Pune city, Western India, from December 2015 through June 2017, to evaluate the US, LS and the US:LS ratio.
The mean US:LS ratio in boys at birth was 1.45; at one year of age it was 1.35 that decreased to 0.89 at 14 y. The nadir for the US:LS ratio in boys was reached at 14 y of age (0.89). In girls, the mean US:LS ratio at birth was 1.44, at one year of age it was 1.35 that decreased to 0.89 at 12 y. The nadir for the US:LS ratio in girls was reached at 12 y of age (0.89). From 12 to 18 y the US:LS ratio was fairly constant (for girls: 0.89, for boys: 0.9). On plotting the US and LS against the age in present study population, the US and LS curves crossed each other (US:LS = 1) at 7 to 8 y in boys and at 6 to 7 y in girls.
The authors describe data for upper and lower body segments and their ratio in boys and girls from birth to 18 y in children from western Maharashtra. These data may help in the diagnosis of disproportionate short stature in children.
KeywordsChildren Lower segment Upper segment Upper and lower segment ratio
All the authors were involved in study concept, planning, and design; SK, RL-O, PP: Acquisition of data; All the authors were involved in statistical analysis and interpretation of data, drafting and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors have approved the final article. AVK will act as guarantor for this paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
An informed written consent was obtained from all the parents/guardian of the participants included in the study.
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