Iodized Salt Consumption and its Association with Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 6–12 years Age Group Children in Bihar
- 8 Downloads
To estimate the proportion of households using adequately iodized salt, total goitre rate and intelligence quotient (IQ) and to assess association, if any, between consumption of iodized salt and intelligence quotient of children aged 6–12 y in the selected districts of Bihar.
Community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Bihar by using cluster sampling technique.
Consumption of iodized salt was 73.5% out of 1263 households surveyed and the prevalence of goitre among children was 2.9%. The mean IQ of study population was 82.6 and it was 9 points lower in children consuming inadequately iodized salt in comparison to children consuming adequately iodized salt. Presence of goitre, inadequately iodized salt consumption and increasing age were the factors which were significant predictors of low IQ level.
The prevalence of goitre has declined from the past but the target of iodized salt consumption has not yet achieved in these districts. This study reinforces the belief that IQ in children is linked to iodine.
KeywordsIodized salt consumption Total goitre rate Intelligence quotient (IQ) Bihar
The authors are thankful to State Health Society, Bihar for providing logistic supports for this survey under NIDDCP. They are also thankful to study participants for their cooperation.
All the authors were involved in study design, carrying out the study, literature search, drafting of the manuscript and critically reviewing it for intellectual content. All the authors have seen and approved the final draft.
Source of Funding
This study was supported by State Health Society, Bihar.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
- 1.Micronutrient Initiative. New Delhi investing in the future - a united call to action on vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Global report, 2009. Available at: http://www.unitedcalltoaction.org/documents/Investing_in_the_future.pdf. Accessed on June 8, 2018.
- 2.Hetzel BS; International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Towards the global elimination of brain damage due to iodine deficiency - a global program for human development with a model applicable to a variety of health, social and environmental problems. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; 2004. Available at: http://www.iccidd.org/cm_data/hetzel-a-frontpage.pdf. Accessed on June 8, 2018.
- 3.World Health Organization. The world health report: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. Available at: http://www.whqlibdoc.who.int/whr/2002/WHR_2002.pdf. Accessed on June 8, 2018.
- 8.WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and Monitoring their Elimination: A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007.p.73–5. Available at:http://www.whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595827_eng.pdf. Accessed on June 8, 2018.
- 11.Madhavan T, Kalyan M, Naidu S, Peshwarla R, Narayan J. Mental retardation: A manual for psychologists – NIMH, Secunderabad, Reprint 1999;135–6.Google Scholar
- 12.Yenkatesan S. Revalidation of Seguin form board test for Indian children. Indian J Appl Psychol. 1998;35:38–42.Google Scholar
- 13.World Health Organization. Division of Mental Health, ICD-10 Guide for Mental Retardation.1996. Available at http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/63000. Accessed on June 8, 2018.
- 15.Singh G, Kaur G, Mengi V, Raina SK. Differentials in prevalence of goitre among school children (6-12 years of age) in rural north-west, India. Public Health Res. 2013;3:79–84.Google Scholar
- 16.Singh AK, Gupta SB, Maheshwari S, Agrawal N. Status of consumption of iodized salt in rural population in district Bareilly, U.P. India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2015;4:585–92.Google Scholar
- 18.Srivastava R, Yadav K, Upadhyay RP, et al. Iodized salt at households and retail shops in a rural community of northern India. South East Asia J Public Health. 2012;2:18–23.Google Scholar
- 19.International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. India: IDD Newsletter; 2011.Google Scholar
- 20.International Council for Control of Iodine deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). Tracking Progress Towards Sustaining Elimination of IDD in Seven States 1999–2005. New Delhi: ICCIDD; 2006. Available at: http://www.iqplusin.org/Reports.htm. Accessed on June 5, 2018.
- 22.National Family Health Survey 4 (NFHS 4) 2015–16. Available at: http://rchiips.org/NFHS/NFHS-4Reports/Bihar.pdf. Accessed on 5 June 2018.
- 29.Alipour S, Heidari H, Davoudi H, Darabi R. The comparison of theory of mind, IQ and attention of normal and hypothyroidism students. Iran J Edu Sociol. 2017;1:48–55.Google Scholar