Central Nervous System Infections in Children: An Ongoing Challenge!
- 45 Downloads
Central nervous system (CNS) infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Estimated incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome in children is 10.5–13.8/100000 . The case fatality rate is 30% and neurological disabilities occur in one–third of survivors . Global burden of disease network (WHO) estimated that in 2010 meningitis caused approximately 422,900 deaths and encephalitis, 143,500 deaths .
Almost all organisms can infect the CNS; however there are distinct etiological differences in various geographical regions and in different seasons. Some pathogens are endemic, others sporadic and yet others cause epidemics. Hence the precise epidemiology of CNS infections is difficult to determine; also in many cases there are difficulties in determining an exact microbiological diagnosis particularly in resource limited countries. A recent multinational study of community acquired CNS infections found that 8.8% people died, and 18.5% were left with...
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
- 2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Expanding poliomyelitis and measles surveillance networks to establish surveillance for acute meningitis and encephalitis syndromes--Bangladesh, China, and India, 2006-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:1008–11.Google Scholar
- 5.WHO Meningococcal meningitis. Factsheet 19 February 2018. Available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/meningococcal-meningitis. Accessed on 17th June 2018.
- 8.WHO Japanese-encephalitis. Fact Sheet 31 December 2015. Available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/japanese-encephalitis. Accessed on 17th June 2018.
- 9.WHO. Herpes simplex virus 31 January 2017. Available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/herpes-simplex-virus. Accessed on 17th June 2018.
- 10.Singhi S, Chaudhary D, Varghese GM, et al; the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine Tropical Fever Group. Tropical fevers: management guidelines. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2014;18:62–9.Google Scholar
- 11.Singhi S, Singhi PD. Clinical profile and etiology of partial seizures in north Indian infants and children. J Epilepsy. 1997;10:32–6.Google Scholar
- 12.WHO. Taeniasis/cysticercosis. 15 February 2018. Available at: http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/taeniasis-cysticercosis. Accessed on 17th June 2018.
- 13.Singhi P, Saini AG. Pediatric neurocysticercosis. Indian J Pediatr. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-017-2460-8.
- 14.WHO. Malaria fact sheet. 20 April 2018. Available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria. Accessed on 17th June 2018.
- 15.Singhi P, Saini AG. Fungal and parasitic CNS infections. Indian J Pediatr. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-017-2487-x.
- 16.Aneja S, Sharma S. Diagnosis and management of acute encephalitis in children. Indian J Pediatr. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2775-0.
- 17.Singhi S, Angurana SK. Principles of management of central nervous system infections. Indian J Pediatr. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-017-2583-y.
- 18.Suthar R, Sankhyan N. Bacterial infections of the central nervous system. Indian J Pediatr. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-017-2477-z.
- 19.Singhi S. Principles of management of CNS infections. In: Singhi P, Griffin DE, Newton C, editors. Central nervous system infections in childhood. London: Mac Keith Press; 2014. p. 20–39.Google Scholar
- 21.Li M, Chen T, Chen SD, Cai J, Hu YH. Comparison of equimolar doses of mannitol and hypertonic saline for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;e736:94.Google Scholar
- 24.WHO Emergencies. Meningococcal meningitis. Available at: http://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/meningitis/en/. Accessed on 17th June 2018.
- 25.WHO. Neglected tropical diseases. First ever licensed vaccine and antihelmintic against the major cause of epilepsy in the developing world. Available at: http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/news/First-licensed-vaccine-and-anthelmintic-against-epilepsy/en/. Accessed on 17th June 2018.