Urinary Screening for Early Detection of Kidney Diseases
- 166 Downloads
Urinary screening is a simple inexpensive tool to evaluate kidney functions. The authors carried out urinary screening of school children for early detection of kidney diseases.
Children in the age group 5–15 y were screened for urinalysis. They were divided in 2 groups; group-1 included 5–10 y and group-2 included >10–15 y old children.
Urine samples of 3340(78%) out of 4283 enrolled children were tested. Abnormal samples were found in 5.75%; with proteinuria in 4.59%, pyuria in 3.29% and hematuria in 4.31%. Males constituted 47.71% in group-1 and 54.64% in group-2. Low body mass index was found in 94.1% group-1 and 78.99% group-2 children. Mild proteinuria was found in 1.2% group-1 and 2.56% group-2 children. Severe proteinuria was more in group-2 (0.77% vs. 0.06%) with female preponderance. Glucosuria was found in 1 boy of group-2. Urobilinogen was more in group-2 (0.65% vs. 0.24%) with male preponderance. Nitrituria was found in 9 girls. Pyuria (2.02% vs. 1.27%) and hematuria were more in group-2 (3.04% vs. 1.87%) with female preponderance. Combined proteinuria and hematuria (0.42% vs. 0.24%) as well bacteruria and fungaluria were more in group-2 (4.11% vs. 1.39%). Six of 192 children with abnormal urinary findings were treated; 1 for urinary calculus and 5 for urinary tract infection.
Abnormal urinary findings were more common in children >10 y of age. Thus urinary screening program of children can become useful for early detection of kidney diseases and contribute towards building up of a healthy nation.
KeywordsUrinary screening Dipstick urine analysis Hematuria Proteinuria Pediatric kidney diseases Pyuria
Body mass index
Chronic kidney diseases
End stage renal disease
Urinary tract infection
The authors are grateful to all Hospital information system department, Pediatricians and Nephrologists who gave their valuable guidance in designing this study on the occasion of World Kidney Day-2016, and to Statisticians and lab staff members who assisted in carrying out the lab analysis. The authorities of School Health Program under Govt. of Gujarat and members of the Institutional Review Board also deserve special thanks since they permitted this study and Govt. granted financial support for carrying out this study.
KSS: Designed the study and was the principal investigator for carrying and implementing the study; AVV: Approved the study, supervised all the lab work and wrote and finalized the manuscript; LAN, RDP, KVK, UGT, PAG, SAC, AVP, MHP: Contributed in study design, carrying out the tests and study and in writing the manuscript. AVV will act as guarantor for the paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Consent of parents/guardians/School authorities/Institutional Review Board
Conflict of Interest
Source of Funding
School Health Program, Govt. of Gujarat.
- 2.Yanagihara T, Kuroda N, Hayakawa M, et al. Epidemiology of school urinary screening over a 30 year period in Tokyo. Pediatr Int. 2007;49:570–6.Google Scholar
- 12.Bakr A, Sarhan A, Hammad A, et al. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among primary school children in Egypt. World J Pediatr. 2007;3:214–7.Google Scholar
- 16.Edress B, Tayeb M, Shandeedi M. Prevalence of hematuria among school children in Makkah and Baha in Saudi Arabia. J Med J. 2013;47:20–5.Google Scholar
- 18.Kliegman. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004.Google Scholar