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The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 82, Issue 10, pp 923–929 | Cite as

Management of Shock in Neonates

  • B. Vishnu BhatEmail author
  • Nishad Plakkal
Review Article

Abstract

Shock is characterized by inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues, and is more frequent in very low birth weight infants, especially in the first few days of life. Shock is an independent predictor of mortality, and the survivors are at a higher risk of neurologic impairment. Understanding the pathophysiology helps to recognize and classify shock in the early compensated phase and initiate appropriate treatment. Hypovolemia is rarely the primary cause of shock in neonates. Myocardial dysfunction is especially common in extremely preterm infants, and in term infants with perinatal asphyxia. Blood pressure measurements are easy, but correlate poorly with cerebral and systemic blood flows. Point-of-care cardiac ultrasound can help in individualized assessment of problems, selecting appropriate therapy and monitoring response, but may not always be available, and long-term benefits need to be demonstrated. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy to guide treatment of neonatal shock is currently experimental. In the absence of hypovolemia, excessive administration of fluid boluses is inappropriate therapy. Dobutamine and dopamine are the most common initial inotropes used in neonatal shock. Dobutamine has been shown to improve systemic blood flow, especially in very low birth weight infants, but dopamine is better at improving blood pressure in hypotensive infants. Newer inodilators including milrinone and levosimendan may be useful in selected settings. Data on long-term survival and neurologic outcomes following different management strategies are scarce and future research efforts should focus on this.

Keywords

Shock Neonate Hypotension Inotrope 

Notes

Contributions

BVB and NP reviewed the literature and contributed to the manuscript. BVB will act as guarantor for this paper.

Conflict of Interest

None.

Source of Funding

None.

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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeonatologyJawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and ResearchPuducherryIndia

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