The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 80, Issue 12, pp 996–1001

Assessment of Mineral Intake by Kidney Stone Patients of Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh with Respect to their Gender, Age and Income

Original Article



To assess the family history of stones and association of mineral intake with gender, age and income of kidney stone patients.


A total of 130 kidney stone patients were selected randomly from Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh and family history of stones and mineral intake was assessed.


Out of selected patients, majority (80.77 %) were first time stone sufferers. There was significant (at 1 % level) association between family history of kidney stone patients with respect to gender of patients. Further study revealed that the intake of sodium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous was higher than recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Among male patients, the intake of sodium, calcium and magnesium was higher for age group III (above 45 y) and intake of potassium and phosphorous was higher for age group I. In female kidney stone patients, intake of sodium, calcium and phosphorous was high for age group II, intake of potassium was high in case of age group I and intake of magnesium was high for age group III. Regression studies revealed that there was significantly higher intake of calcium and phosphorous by male kidney stone patients than female kidney stone patients. With the increase in age, the intake of calcium and phosphorous decreased.


Assessment of mineral intake is necessary to enable the health care providers, to give advice and suggestions to the patients to carry out preventive measures in reducing the risk of prevalence of kidney stones in this area and further advice to the suffering patients to prevent the recurrence of stone formation.


Anthropometry Age Income 


  1. 1.
    Lock S. The oxford illustrated companion to medicine. USA: Oxford University Press; 2001. pp. 836.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Misra A, Kumar A. Studies on ayurvedic drugs for the cure of urinary tract stones. J Ind Bot Soc. 2000;79:S47–8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Portis AJ, Sundaram CP. Diagnosis and initial management of kidney stones. Am Fam Physician. 2001;63:1329–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ansari MS, Gupta NP, Hemal AK, et al. Spectrum of stone composition: Structural analysis of 1050 upper urinary tract calculi from Northern India. Int J Urol. 2005;12:12–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strope SA, Wolf Jr JS, Hollenbeck BK. Changes in gender distribution of urinary stone disease. Urol. 2010;75:543–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hossain RZ, Ogawa Y, Hokama S, Morozumi M, Hatano T. Urolithiasis in Okinawa, Japan: A relative high prevalence of uric acid stones. Int J Urol. 2003;10:411–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daudon M, Dore JC, Junger P, Lacour B. Changes in stone composition according to age and gender of patients: A multivariate epidemiological approach. Urol Res. 2004;32:241–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gopalan C, Ramasastri BV, Balasubramanian SC. Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, Indian Council of Medical Research. Hyderabad: National Institute of Nutrition; 2000. pp. 47.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    FNB. National Academy of Science- National Research Council Recommended Daily Allowances. Food and Nutrition Board. Revised 1980.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical Methods. Calcutta: Oxford and IBH publishing; 1967.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stitchantrakul W, Kochakarn W, Ruangraksa C, Domrongkitchaiporn S. Urinary risk factors for recurrent calcium stone formation in Thai stone formers. J Med Assoc Thail. 2007;90:688–98.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewandowski S, Rodgers AL. Idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis: Risk factors and conservative treatment. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;345:17–34.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    el-Reshaid K, Mughal H, Kapoor M. Epidemiological profile, mineral metabolic pattern and crystallographic analysis of urolithiasis in Kuwait. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997;13:229–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Suganthi P, Bharathi V, Amirthaveni M. Comparative study of 24 hour urinary composition between urinary stone formers and healthy volunteers. Indian J Nutr Diet. 2007;44:249–60.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alapont Pérez FM, Gálvez Calderón J, Varea Herrero J, Colome Borros G, Olaso Oltra A, Sánchez Bisono JR. Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis. Actas Urol Esp. 2001;25:341–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marickar YMF, Salim A, Vijay A. Pattern of family history in stone patients. Urol Res. 2009;37:331–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spivacow FR, Negri AL, de Valle EE, Calviño I, Fradinger E, Zanchetta JR. Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1129–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pak CYC. Medical management of urinary stone disease. Nephron Clin Pract (electronic recourse). 2004;98:49–53.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carbone LD, Bush AJ, Barrow KD, Kang AH. The relationship of sodium intake to calcium and sodium excretion and bone mineral density of the hip in postmenopausal African-American and Caucasian women. J Bone Miner Metab. 2003;21:415–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vasanthamani G, Sushmitha Y. Impact of diet counseling on patients suffering from urinary stones. Indian J Nutr Diet. 1997;34:24–8.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Orewa SI, Iyangbe CO. Determinants of daily food calorie intake among rural and low income urban households in Nigeria. Middle-East J Sci Res. 2009;4:297–306.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarda AL, Chandrakar G, Brahmankar SB, Mehtre NB, Dahatonde S. Pattern of calorie consumption in rural household of Raipur district of Chhattisgrah. Indian J Nutr Diet. 2005;42:178–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, COHSCSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi VishvavidyalayaPalampurIndia

Personalised recommendations