Advertisement

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 80, Issue 1, pp 1–5 | Cite as

Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Colonization in the Preterm and Term Infant’s Intestine

  • J. C. Hallab
  • S. T. Leach
  • L. Zhang
  • H. M. Mitchell
  • J. Oei
  • K. Lui
  • A. S. Day
Original Article

Abstract

Objective

To further define patterns of colonising intestinal microflora in newborn infants utilising molecular methods.

Methods

Ten term and 5 preterm (<32 wk) infants born at the Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, Australia were enrolled in the present study and followed for 6 mo post partum. Serial stools were collected, DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis using a range of primers and sequencing. The effect of gestational length, feeding and delivery method was compared to the pattern of bacterial acquisition.

Results

Intestinal bacterial diversity was lower in preterm compared with term infants. For term infants, bacterial DNA detection rates were not associated with feeding or delivery method, although Enterobacteria and Clostridia were commonly identified. The detection rate of Bifidobacteria was lower in preterm infants than term infants. Potential pathogens were detected in preterm infant samples.

Conclusions

Preterm infants frequently have aberrant bacterial colonization of the intestine. Further research is now required to determine if this may contribute to adverse health outcomes.

Keywords

Preterm Infant Intestinal bacteria Colonisation DGGE 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Jani O’Rourke for providing positive control bacteria, Dr. Heather-Anne Marie Schmidt for technical support and Nollaig Shalloo for assistance with sample collection. Laboratory work was undertaken, in part, in the Westfield Research Laboratories, Sydney Children's Hospital.

Conflicts of Interest

None.

Role of Funding Source

This study was supported, in part, with a grant from the Leslie Stevens fund for Newborn care, Sydney Children’s Hospital Foundation.

References

  1. 1.
    Gronlund MM, Lehtonen OP, Eerola E, Kero P. Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: permanent changes in intestinal flora after cesarean delivery. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1999;28:19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guarner F, Malagelada JR. Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet. 2003;361:512–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Forchielli ML, Walker WA. The role of gut-associated lymphoid tissues and mucosal defence. Br J Nutr. 2005;93:S41–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walker WA. Development of the intestinal mucosal barrier. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002;34:S33–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gorbach SL, Barza M, Giuliano M, Jacobus NV. Colonization resistance of the human intestinal microflora: testing the hypothesis in normal volunteers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988;7:98–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harmsen HJ, Wildeboer-Veloo AC, Raangs GC, et al. Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30:61–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sakata H, Yoshioka H, Fujita K. Development of the intestinal flora in very low birth weight infants compared to normal full-term newborns. Eur J Pediatr. 1985;144:186–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Magne F, Abely M, Boyer F, Morville P, Pochart P, Suau A. Low species diversity and high interindividual variability in faeces of preterm infants as revealed by sequences of 16S rRNA genes and PCR-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis profiles. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2006;57:128–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morelli L. Postnatal development of intestinal microflora as influenced by infant nutrition. J Nutr. 2008;138:1791S–5S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Favier CF, Vaughan EE, De Vos WM, Akkermans AD. Molecular monitoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nubel U, Garcia-Pichel F, Kuhl M, Muyzer G. Quantifying microbial diversity: morphotypes, 16S rRNA genes, and carotenoids of oxygenic phototrophs in microbial mats. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:422–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Satokari RM, Vaughan EE, Akkermans AD, Saarela M, de Vos WM. Bifidobacterial diversity in human feces detected by genus-specific PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:504–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grehan MJ. Molecular studies of the human and murine intestinal micorbiota. Sydney NSW: Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (Dissertation). Sydney: University of New South Wales; 2004.pp. 280Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gewolb IH, Schwalbe RS, Taciak VL, Harrison TS, Panigrahi P. Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999;80:F167–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ducluzeau R. Development, equilibrium and role of microbial flora in the newborn. Ann Pediatr (Paris). 1993;40:13–22.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yoshioka H, Iseki K, Fujita K. Development and differences of intestinal flora in the neonatal period in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Pediatrics. 1983;72:317–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Butel MJ, Suau A, Campeotto F, et al. Conditions of bifidobacterial colonization in preterm infants: a prospective analysis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007;44:577–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stark PL, Lee A. The bacterial colonization of the large bowel of pre-term low birth weight neonates. J Hyg (Lond). 1982;89:59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Penders J, Thijs C, Vink C, et al. Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. Pediatrics. 2006;118:511–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suau A, Bonnet R, Sutren M, et al. Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:4799–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rotimi VO, Olowe SA, Ahmed I. The development of bacterial flora of premature neonates. J Hyg (Lond). 1985;94:309–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Magne F, Suau A, Pochart P, Desjeux JF. Fecal microbial community in preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41:386–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    el-Mohandes AE, Keiser JF, Johnson LA, Refat M, Jackson BJ. Aerobes isolated in fecal microflora of infants in the intensive care nursery: relationship to human milk use and systemic sepsis. Am J Infect Control. 1993;21:231–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Hallab
    • 3
  • S. T. Leach
    • 4
  • L. Zhang
    • 3
  • H. M. Mitchell
    • 3
  • J. Oei
    • 2
  • K. Lui
    • 2
    • 4
  • A. S. Day
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologySydney Children’s HospitalRandwickAustralia
  2. 2.Neonatal Care Unit, Royal Hospital for WomenSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Women’s and Children’s HealthUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  5. 5.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Otago (Christchurch)ChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations