Acute Chest Pain
Chest pain is a worrisome symptom that often causes parents to bring their child to emergency department(ED) for evaluation. In the majority of cases, the etiology of the chest pain is benign, but in one-fourth of the cases symptoms are distressing enough to cause children to miss school. The clinician’s primary goal in ED evaluation of chest pain is to identify serious causes and rule out organic pathology. The diagnostic evaluation includes a thorough history and physical examination. Younger children are more likely to have a cardiorespiratory source for their chest pain, whereas an adolescent is more likely to have a psychogenic cause. Children having an organic cause of chest pain are more likely to have acute pain, sleep disturbance due to pain and associated fever or abnormal examination findings, whereas those with non-organic chest pain are more likely to have pain for a longer duration. Chest radiograph is required in some, especially in patients with history of trauma . In children, myocardial ischemia is rare, thus routine ECG is not required on every patient. However, both pericarditis and myocarditis can present with chest pain and fever. Musculoskeletal chest pain, such as caused by costochondritis and trauma, is generally reproducible on palpation and is exaggerated by physical activity or breathing. Pneumonia with or without pleural effusion, usually presents with fever and tachypnea; chest pain may be presenting symptom sometimes. In asthmatic children bronchospasm and persistent coughing can lead to excess use of chest wall muscles and chest pain. Patients’ who report acute pain and subsequent respiratory distress should raise suspicion of a spontaneous pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. ED management includes analgesics, specific treatment directed at underlying etiology and appropriate referral.
KeywordsChest pain Children Osteochondritis Psychogenic chest pain
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