Clinical profile of Chikungunya in infants
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To define the clinical manifestations of Chikungunya infection in infants.
The inclusion criteria was fever (defined as axillary temperature > 99.6 °F) with any one of the following features; seizure, loose stools, peripheral cyanosis, skin manifestations or pedal edema in children less than one year. Details of disease from onset of illness till admission were noted and a thorough clinical examination was done at the time of admission. Daily follow-up was performed and the serial order of appearance of clinical features was noted till complete recovery. The sera collected from patients after the 7th day of onset of fever was analyzed for specific chikungunya antibody by IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Fifty six (56) infants were laboratory confirmed for chikungunya, consisting of 34 (60.71%) males and 22 (39.29%) females. 4 (7.14%) infants were less than 1 month of age, 39 (69.64%) 2-6 months old and 13 (23.21%) 7–12 months old. Fever was invariably present, but associated constitutional symptoms in infants consisted of lethargy or irritability and excessive cry. The most characteristic feature of the infection in infants was acrocyanosis and symmetrical superficial vesicobullous lesions were noted in most infants. Erythematous asymmetrical macules and patches were observed which later progressed to morbiliform rashes. The face and oral cavity was spared in all observed patients.
An entirely different spectrum of disease is seen in infants with chikungunya as compared to older children who need to be carefully observed for. The morbidity and mortality of the disease may be avoided by the rational use of drugs and close monitoring of all infants.
Key WordsChikungunya Skin manifestations Infants Vesiculobullous lesions Acrocyanosis
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