Stereotactic body radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy induce different plasmatic cytokine changes in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study
To assess kinetics of plasmatic cytokines during radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced and early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
This prospective study was conducted on 15 early-stage NSCLC underwent to extreme hypofractionated regimen (52 Gy in 8 fractions) with stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and 13 locally advanced NSCLC underwent to radical moderated hypofractionated regimen (60 Gy in 25 fractions) with intensity modulated RT (IMRT). For patients undergoing SBRT, peripheral blood samples were collected on the first day of SBRT (TFd), the last day (TLd) and 45 days (T45d) after the end of SBRT. For patients undergoing IMRT, blood samples were collected at: TFd, 2 weeks (T2w), 4 weeks (T4w), TLd, and T45d. The following cytokines were measured: IL-1, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, EGF, FGF-2, INF-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TGF-α, TNF-α, and VEGF. Cytokine levels measured in different RT time and compared.
No difference in baseline levels of cytokines was documented between patient radiation approaches (except for MIP-1α). For SBRT patients, a mean reduction of IL-10 and IL-17 plasma level was documented between TLd and TFd, respectively (p < 0.05). For IMRT patients, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) mean plasma level reduction was documented between T4w and TFd for all the following cytokines: IL-1, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-12, FGF-2, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TGF-α, TNF-α, VEGF.
SBRT and IMRT induce different plasmatic cytokine changes in NSCLC patients, supporting hypothesis that RT regimes of dose schedules and techniques have different impacts on the host immune response.
KeywordsNon-small cell lung cancer Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy Intensity modulated radiotherapy Cytokines
Compliance with ethical standards
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
The current study has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.
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