Clinical and Translational Oncology

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 243–256 | Cite as

Guidelines for biomarker testing in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology

  • R. García-Carbonero
  • F. Vilardell
  • P. Jiménez-Fonseca
  • R. González-Campora
  • E. González
  • M. Cuatrecasas
  • J. Capdevila
  • I. Aranda
  • J. Barriuso
  • X. Matías-Guiu
Special Article


The annual incidence of neuroendocrine tumours in the Caucasian population ranges from 2.5 to 5 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours is a family of neoplasms widely variable in terms of anatomical location, hormone composition, clinical syndromes they cause and in their biological behaviour. This high complexity and clinical heterogeneity, together with the known difficulty of predicting their behaviour from their pathological features, are reflected in the many classifications that have been developed over the years in this field. This article reviews the main tissue and clinical biomarkers and makes recommendations for their use in medical practice. This document represents a consensus reached jointly by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP).


Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours Biomarkers Ki-67 Guidelines Chromogranin A Synaptophysin Octreotide scan 



The members of the Working Group on Biomarkers SEOM-SEAP are Ramón Colomer, Pilar García-Alfonso, Pilar Garrido, Ricardo González Cámpora, José Palacios and Enrique de Álava.

Conflict of interest

SEOM and SEAP acknowledge the financial support for this project of unrestricted grants from Pfizer Oncology and Novartis Oncology. Jorge Barriuso has been partially funded by The Spanish Association Against Cancer. The authors state that, at the time of drafting and revision the text of the manuscript, they were unaware of the names of the laboratories who have supported this project, so this support has not influenced the content of this article.


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Copyright information

© Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. García-Carbonero
    • 1
  • F. Vilardell
    • 2
  • P. Jiménez-Fonseca
    • 3
  • R. González-Campora
    • 4
  • E. González
    • 5
  • M. Cuatrecasas
    • 6
  • J. Capdevila
    • 7
  • I. Aranda
    • 8
  • J. Barriuso
    • 9
  • X. Matías-Guiu
    • 10
  1. 1.Medical Oncology DepartmentVirgen del Rocío University Hospital, Biomedicine Institute of Sevilla (IBIS) [University of Sevilla, CSIC, HUVR]SevilleSpain
  2. 2.Pathology DepartmentUniversity Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, University of Lleida-IRBLLEIDALleidaSpain
  3. 3.Medical Oncology DepartmentUniversity Hospital Central de AsturiasOviedoSpain
  4. 4.Pathology DepartmentUniversity Hospital Virgen MacarenaSevillaSpain
  5. 5.Medical Oncology DepartmentUniversity Hospital Virgen de las NievesGranadaSpain
  6. 6.Pathology DepartmentClinic University HospitalBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Medical Oncology DepartmentUniversity Hospital Vall d’HebrónBarcelonaSpain
  8. 8.Pathology DepartmentGeneral University Hospital of AlicanteAlicanteSpain
  9. 9.Medical Oncology DepartmentLa Paz University HospitalMadridSpain
  10. 10.Pathology and Molecular Genetics DepartmentUniversity Hospital Arnau de Vilanova of Lleida, Universitat de Lleida, IRBLLEIDALleidaSpain

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