miRNAs as biomarkers in prostate cancer
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- Casanova-Salas, I., Rubio-Briones, J., Fernández-Serra, A. et al. Clin Transl Oncol (2012) 14: 803. doi:10.1007/s12094-012-0877-0
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Current prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is based in the serum prostate-specific antigen biomarker and digital rectal examination. However, these methods are limited by a low predictive value (24–37 %) and a high risk of mistaken results. During last years, new promising biomarkers such as Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA-3) and TMPRSS2-ETS fusion genes have been evaluated for their clinical use. However, the search of new biomarkers that could be used for PCa diagnosis and prognosis is still needed. Recent studies have demonstrated that the aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, is related with the development of several cancers, including PCa. Since miRNAs serve as phenotypic signatures of different cancers, they appear as potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools. Here, we review the current knowledge of miRNA expression patterns in PCa and their role in PCa prognosis and therapeutics.