Bacterial and Fungal Communities of Gioddu as Revealed by PCR–DGGE Analysis

  • Antonietta Maoloni
  • Vesna Milanović
  • Federica Cardinali
  • Nicoletta P. Mangia
  • Marco A. Murgia
  • Cristiana Garofalo
  • Francesca Clementi
  • Andrea OsimaniEmail author
  • Lucia AquilantiEmail author
Short communications


Gioddu is the sole variety of fermented milk originating in Italy. Despite the long history of consumption, Gioddu still represents an undisclosed source of microbial diversity. The present study was aimed to get an insight into the bacterial and fungal diversity of Gioddu samples collected from two artisan producers located in Sardinia. To this end 3 batches of Gioddu were collected from each producer and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction–Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses. Gioddu was produced with sheep milk in accordance with the local tradition. Regarding the bacterial population, a low biodiversity emerged. In more detail, the sole species Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was detected in all the samples, irrespective of the producer or the batch. A more ample microbial diversity was highlighted for the fungal population that included closest relatives to Pichia cactophila, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Galactomyces candidum. Based on the results, the detected bacterial and fungal species generally clustered in accordance with the producer, irrespective of the batch considered. It is noteworthy that, Gioddu revealed several microbiological similarities with kefir beverage, thus suggesting, by analogy, potential health benefits related to its consumption. More research is needed to better clarify the microbiota composition of Gioddu by using more powerful metagenomic techniques.


Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Pichia cactophila Kluyveromyces marxianus Fermented milk Microbiota 



The authors would like to thank the farmers that kindly provided Gioddu samples.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12088_2019_838_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari ed AmbientaliUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di AgrariaUniversità degli Studi di SassariSassariItaly

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