Recent Advancements in the Development of Modern Probiotics for Restoring Human Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis

  • Roshan Kumar
  • Utkarsh Sood
  • Vipin Gupta
  • Mona Singh
  • Joy Scaria
  • Rup LalEmail author
Review article


A healthy gut is predominantly occupied by bacteria which play a vital role in nutrition and health. Any change in normal gut homeostasis imposes gut dysbiosis. So far, efforts have been made to mitigate the gastrointestinal symptoms using modern day probiotics. The majority of the probiotics strains used currently belong to the genera Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus. Recent advancements in culturomics by implementing newer techniques coupled with the use of gnotobiotic animal models provide a subtle ground to develop novel host specific probiotics therapies. In this review article, the recent advances in the development of microbe-based therapies which can now be implemented to treat a wide spectrum of diseases have been discussed. However, these probiotics are not classified as drugs and there is a lack of stringent law enforcement to protect the end users against the pseudo-probiotic products. While modern probiotics hold strong promise for the future, more rigorous regulations are needed to develop genuine probiotic products and characterize novel probiotics using the latest research and technology. This article also highlights the possibility of reducing antibiotic usage by utilizing probiotics developed using the latest concepts of syn and ecobiotics.


Probiotics Prebiotics Synbiotics Ecobiotics Challenges Microbiota Dysbiosis 



We acknowledge Julie Nelson, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Department, South Dakota State University for editing and improving this article.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roshan Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Utkarsh Sood
    • 1
    • 4
  • Vipin Gupta
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mona Singh
    • 5
  • Joy Scaria
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rup Lal
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.PhiXGen Private LimitedGurugramIndia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary and Biomedical SciencesSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  3. 3.South Dakota Centre for Biologics Research and CommercializationBrookingsUSA
  4. 4.Department of ZoologyUniversity of Delhi DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Special Centre for Molecular MedicineJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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