Molecular Mechanism of Antibiotic Resistance: The Untouched Area of Future Hope
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The treatment of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly ineffective due to rapid mutation which leads to antibiotic resistant and resistant bacteria become more prevalent. As a result the existing antibiotics are gradually obsolete and again new drugs are needed to be designed for the same threat. However, the prediction of evolutionary processes/antibiotic resistance is uncertain. Still, the understanding of mode of evolution of resistance in bacteria is a determining step in the preclinical development of new antibiotics, because drug developers assess the risk of resistance arising against a drug during preclinical development. Multidrug efflux pump systems play an important role for making multidrug resistance to a range of clinically important antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which lower the intracellular drug concentration by exporting incoming antibiotics across the membranes. We tried to show that the wild type susceptible bacteria P. aeruginosa modified its genetic makeup at mutational hotspots under stress. This strain may either become multidrug resistant or remain susceptible depending on position of amino acid changes in regulatory proteins of efflux pump. Multidrug resistant strain made significant changes at the amino acid positions, 103rd (G → A) and 126th (E → V) through the mutation on the nucleotide position of 308th (G → C); both 377th (A → T) and 378th (G → T), respectively in mexR, a repressor of mexAB-oprM efflux pump. This mutant protein showed low affinity with their operator. But the alteration at 103th position (G → A) in mexR may provide almost similar structural and functional stability as wild type. It was found that mutation was seemed to be well regulated within the limit and position specific under stress which might be back to its original form by supplying counter stress unless addition or deletion takes place.
KeywordsAntibiotics Antibiotic resistant Adaptation Stress Mutational hotspots Nucleotide
Raju Biswas is thankful to CSIR for Junior Research Fellowship (File No: 09/025(0216)/2015-EMR-I) and Principal, Symsundar College, Shymsundar, Burdwan for conducting the research. Authors are thankful to UGC-Center of Advanced Study and DST-FIST, Department of Botany, The University of Burdwan for pursuing research activities.
RB 1 and 2 adopted the idea. RB 1 and ASP conducted some in silico work and interpreted the data. RB 1, 2 and ASP wrote and all authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflict of interest.
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