Advertisement

Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 51–57 | Cite as

Contraceptive Sperm Agglutinating Proteins Identified in Staphylococcus warneri, Natural Microflora of an Infertile Woman

  • Neeraj Chandra Pant
  • Ravinder Singh
  • Aditi Chauhan
  • Vijaya Gupta
  • Ravimohan S. Mavuduru
  • Vijay Prabha
  • Prince SharmaEmail author
Original Research Article
  • 144 Downloads

Abstract

Staphylococcus warneri, isolated from the cervix of an adult female with unexplained infertility, was found to agglutinate human spermatozoa in vitro leading to their death. A genomic library of S. warneri was generated using pSMART-Escherichia coli vector-host system. Approximately 3500 transformants were screened and four showed sperm agglutinating activity. Sperm agglutinating proteins (SAPs) were partially purified from the positive transformants and were found to agglutinate sperms in vitro. Cloned ORFs in positive transformants were sequenced and ORF finder identified them as endonuclease, accessory secretory protein-Asp1, accessory secretory protein-Asp2 and signal transduction protein. Mannose was found to competitively inhibit sperm agglutination, indicating that SAPs in S. warneri bind to mannose in glycoprotein receptors on the surface of sperms for agglutination. This is the first report on identification of SAPs which may be responsible for unexplained infertility in women and may be used as contraceptive agents.

Keywords

Staphylococcus warneri Spermicide SAPs Sperm agglutination Contraceptive 

Supplementary material

12088_2018_766_MOESM1_ESM.docx (121 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 120 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Mathew V, Bantwal G (2012) Male contraception. Indian J Endocr Metab 16:910–917.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/240268
  2. 2.
    Naz RK (2011) Can curcumin provide an ideal contraceptive? Mol Reprod Dev 78:116–123.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mrd.21276 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shah HC, Tatke P, Singh KK (2008) Spermicidal agents. Drug Discov Ther 2:200–210. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/57d3/886899a05df5cc5c80dbe16a478350c4a6cf.pdf
  4. 4.
    Mukherjee M, Datta M, Biswas S, Pal AK, Malakar D, Bhattacharyya AK, Bhattacharyya S, Kobayashi H (2003) Immotilin, a novel sperm immobilizing protein. Fertil Steril 79:1673–1675. http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(03)00371-6/abstract
  5. 5.
    Reddy KVR, Manjramkar DD (2000) Evaluation of the antifertility effect of magainin-A in rabbits: in vitro and in vivo studies. Fertil Steril 73:353–358. http://www.urologyadvance.com/article/S0015-0282(99)00499-9/abstract
  6. 6.
    Aranha C, Gupta S, Reddy KVR (2004) Contraceptive efficacy of antimicrobial peptide nisin: in vitro and in vivo studies. Contraception 69:333–338. http://www.contraceptionjournal.org/article/S0010-7824(03)00298-1/abstract
  7. 7.
    Aranha CC, Manjramkar DD, Reddy KVR (2004) Preclinical evaluation of magainin-A as a contraceptive antimicrobial agent. Fertil Steril 81:1357–1365. http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(04)00156-6/abstract
  8. 8.
    Reddy KVR, Aranha C, Gupta SM, Yedery RD (2004) Evaluation of antimicrobial peptide nisin as a safe vaginal contraceptive agent in rabbits: in vitro and in vivo studies. Reproduction 128:117–126. http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/128/1/117.short
  9. 9.
    Gupta G, Jangir S, Sharma VL (2014) Targeting sperm post-ejaculation for value-added contraception. Curr Mol Pharmacol 7:167–174. http://dkr.cdri.res.in:8080/handle/123456789/1433
  10. 10.
    Silkin L, Hamza S, Kaufman S, Cobba SL, Vederas JC (2008) Spermicidal bacteriocins: lacticin 3147 and subtilosin A. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:3103–3106. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X07013352
  11. 11.
    Centola GM (1998) Dose-response effects of gramicidin-D, EDTA, and nonoxynol-9 on sperm motion parameters and acrosome status. Contraception 58:35–38. https://www.contraceptionjournal.org/article/S0010-7824(98)00057-2/pdf
  12. 12.
    Sutayak KE, Anderson RA, Dover SE, Feathergill KA, Aroutcheva AA, Faro S, Chikindas ML (2008) Spermicidal activity of the safe natural antimicrobial peptide subtilosin. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 28:1–6. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2008/540758/abs/
  13. 13.
    Ghosh AK, Paul S, Sood P, Rudramurthy SM, Rajbanshi A, Jillwin TJ, Chakrabarti A (2015) Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry for the rapid identi fi cation of yeasts causing bloodstream infections. Clin Microbiol Infect 21:372–378.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2014.11.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2010) Laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K (2002) Short protocols in molecular biology, 5th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wolff H, Panhans A, Stolz W, Meurer M (1993) Adherence of Escherichia coli to sperm: a mannose mediated phenomenon leading to agglutination of sperm and E. coli. Fertil Steril 60:154–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282(16)56054-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar R, Koul S, Kumar P, Kalia VC (2016) Searching biomarkers in the sequenced genomes of Staphylococcus for their rapid identification. Indian J Microbiol 56:64–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-016-0565-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kalia VC, Purohit HJ (2011) Quenching the quorum sensing system: potential antibacterial drug targets. Crit Rev Microbiol 37:121–140.  https://doi.org/10.3109/1040841X.2010.532479 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kalia VC (2013) Quorum sensing inhibitors: an overview. Biotechnol Adv 31:224–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.10.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kalia VC (2014) Microbes, antimicrobials and resistance: the battle goes on. Indian J Microbiol 54:1–2.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-013-0443-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kalia VC, Prakash J, Koul S, Ray S (2017) Simple and rapid method for detecting biofilm forming bacteria. Indian J Microbiol 57:109–111.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-016-0616-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kalia VC, Koul S, Ray S, Prakash S (2018) Targeting quorum sensing mediated Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. In: Kalia VC (ed) Biotechnological applications of quorum sensing inhibitors. Springer, Berlin, pp 23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-9026-4_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koul S, Prakash J, Mishra A, Kalia VC (2016) Potential emergence of multi-quorum sensing inhibitor resistant (MQSIR) bacteria. Indian J Microbiol 56:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-015-0558-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prabha V, Sandhu R, Kaur S, Kaur K, Sarwal A, Mavuduru RS, Singh SK (2010) Mechanism of sperm immobilization by Escherichia coli. Adv Urol 2010:240268.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/240268
  25. 25.
    Diemer T, Weidner W, Michelmann HW, Schiefer H-G, Rovan E, Mayer F (1996) Influence of Escherichia coli on motility parameters of human spermatozoa in vitro. Int J Androl 19:271–277.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.1996.tb00475.x
  26. 26.
    Auroux MR, Jacques L, Mathieu D, Auer J (1991) Is the sperm bacterial ratio a determining factor in impairment of sperm motility: an in vitro study in man with E. coli. Int J Androl 14:264–270.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.1991.tb01091.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bartoov B, Ozbonfil D, Maayan MC, Ohad E, Nitzan Y (1991) Virulence characteristics of male genital tract Escherichia coli isolated from semen of suspected infertile men. Andrologia 23:387–394.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1991.tb02586.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neeraj Chandra Pant
    • 1
  • Ravinder Singh
    • 1
  • Aditi Chauhan
    • 1
  • Vijaya Gupta
    • 1
  • Ravimohan S. Mavuduru
    • 2
  • Vijay Prabha
    • 1
  • Prince Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, South Campus, Basic Medical Science (Block I)Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of UrologyPGIMERChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations