Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 394–404 | Cite as

High Throughput Sequencing: An Overview of Sequencing Chemistry

  • Sheetal Ambardar
  • Rikita Gupta
  • Deepika Trakroo
  • Rup Lal
  • Jyoti VakhluEmail author
Review Article


In the present century sequencing is to the DNA science, what gel electrophoresis was to it in the last century. From 1977 to 2016 three generation of the sequencing technologies of various types have been developed. Second and third generation sequencing technologies referred commonly to as next generation sequencing technology, has evolved significantly with increase in sequencing speed, decrease in sequencing cost, since its inception in 2004. GS FLX by 454 Life Sciences/Roche diagnostics, Genome Analyzer, HiSeq, MiSeq and NextSeq by Illumina, Inc., SOLiD by ABI, Ion Torrent by Life Technologies are various type of the sequencing platforms available for second generation sequencing. The platforms available for the third generation sequencing are Helicos™ Genetic Analysis System by SeqLL, LLC, SMRT Sequencing by Pacific Biosciences, Nanopore sequencing by Oxford Nanopore’s, Complete Genomics by Beijing Genomics Institute and GnuBIO by BioRad, to name few. The present article is an overview of the principle and the sequencing chemistry of these high throughput sequencing technologies along with brief comparison of various types of sequencing platforms available.


Sequencing platforms Second generation sequencing Third generation sequencing High throughput sequencing NGS 



Authors are thankful to DBT (BT/PR5534/PBD/16/1006/2012), UGC (42-168/2013(SR)) and ICAR-NBAIM (NBAIM/AMAAS/2014-15/81) for funding of various projects. SA and RG are thankful to UGC-CSIR for NET Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheetal Ambardar
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rikita Gupta
    • 1
  • Deepika Trakroo
    • 1
  • Rup Lal
    • 2
  • Jyoti Vakhlu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Metagenomics Laboratory, School of BiotechnologyUniversity of JammuJammuIndia
  2. 2.Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, South CampusUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platform, National Centre for Biological Sciences, TIFR BangaloreBangaloreIndia
  4. 4.Institute of Trans-Disciplinary Health Sciences and Technology, Trans-Disciplinary UniversityBangaloreIndia

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