Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves Under In Vitro Conditions
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This study was undertaken with an objective of testing the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Bauhinia purpurea leaves and identifying the bioactive compounds. The antimicrobial activity of leaf extract was determined in aqueous and organic extracts and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against six species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using the disk diffusion method. The chemical constituents of organic plant extract were separated by thin layer chromatography and purified by column chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Significant inhibitory activity was observed with methanol extracts of plant against the test microorganisms while less antibacterial activity was observed in hexane, acetone and aqueous extracts. MIC of B. purpurea extract was ≤1,500 μg/ml against S. aureus and B. subtilis while this extract showed no inhibition against Gram-negative S. typhi, E. coli and P. aeruginosa or against fungus C. albicans. Eleven compounds were identified in B. purpurea leaf extract by GC–MS analysis. The composition of B. purpurea revealed the presence of lupeol, stigmasterol, lanosterol, ergosterol, beta-tocopherol, phytol, hexadeconic acids, hexadeconic acids methyl esters, octadecadienoic acids and octadecatrienoic acid. Stigmasterol and lupeol were the most abundant (34.48 and 15.63 %). Other phytosterols like lanosterol (4.15 %) and ergosterol (2.82 %) were also found to be present in this extract.
KeywordsAntimicrobial activity Medicinal plants MIC TLC GC–MS
The authors express sincere and heartfelt thanks to Central Salt and Marine Research Institute (CSMRI) for carrying out GC–MS analysis.
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