Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 54–60 | Cite as

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds

  • Pedro Chávez-Quintal
  • Tania González-Flores
  • Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil
  • Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré
Original Article


Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC50 for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml−1 for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml−1 for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.


Papaya harvest by-products Antifungal compounds Phytopathogen inhibition Ethanolic extraction 


  1. 1.
    Lugo de Cumare Z, Fuguet de Alvarado R (2004) Antracnosis en frutos de lechosa (Carica papaya) del tipo Maradol causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en el estado de Falcón. Rev Fac Agron 21:207–212Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Galindo-Estrella TR, Hernández-Gutiérrez R, Mateos-Díaz J, Sandoval-Fabián G, Chel-Guerrero L, Rodríguez-Buenfil I, Gallegos-Tintoré S (2009) Proteolytic activity in enzymatic extracts from Carica papaya L cv. Maradol harvest by-products. Process Biochem 44:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baños-Guevara PE, Zavaleta-Mejía E, Colinas-León MT, Luna-Romero I, Gutiérrez-Alonso JG (2004) Control biológico de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [(Penz.) Penz. y Sacc.] en papaya maradol roja (Carica papaya L.) y fisiología postcosecha de frutos infectados. Rev Mex Fitopatol 22:198–205Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dixit SN, Chandra H, Tiwari R, Dixit V (1995) Development of a botanical fungicide against blue mould of mandarins. J Stored Prod Res 31:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Espinosa-García F (2001) La diversidad de los metabolitos secundarios y la teoría de la defensa vegetal. In: Anaya AL, Espinosa-García F, Cruz-Ortega R (eds) Relaciones químicas entre organismos: Aspectos básicos y perspectivas de su aplicación. Instituto de ecología UNAM-Plaza Valdés, México, pp 231–250Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bautista-Baños S, García-Domínguez E, Barrera-Necha LL, Wilson CL (2003) Seasonal evaluation of the postharvest fungicidal activity of powders and extracts of huamuchil (Pithecellobium dulce): action against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Postharvest Biol Technol 92:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bautista-Baños S, Hernández-López M, Barrera-Necha LL, Bermudes-Torres L (2000) Antifungal screening of plants of the state of Morelos, México against four fungal postharvest pathogens of fruits and vegetables. Rev Mex Fitopatol 18:36–41Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cowan MM (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:564–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Osuna-Torres L, Tapia-Pérez ME, Aguilar-Contreras A (2005) Plantas medicinales de la medicina tradicional mexicana para tratar afecciones gastrointestinales: Estudio etnobotánico fitoquímico y farmacológico. Universidat de Barcelona, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bautista-Baños S, Barrera-Necha LL, Bravo-Luna I, Bermudes-Torres L (2002) Antifungal activity of leaf and stem extracts from various plant species on the incidence of Colletotrichum gloesporoides of papaya and mango fruit after storage. Rev Mex Fitopatol 20:8–12Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kermanshai R, McCarry BE, Rosenfeld J, Summers PS, Weretilnyk EA, Sorger GJ (2001) Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts. Phytochemistry 57:427–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adebiyi A, Adaikan P (2005) Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds. Phytother Res 19:628–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doughari JH, Elmahmood AM, Manzara S (2007) Studies on the antibacterial activity of root extracts of Carica papaya L. Afr J Microbiol Res 1:37–41Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Emeruwa AC (1982) Antibacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract. J Nat Prod 2:123–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lohiya NK, Mishra PK, Pathak N, Manivannan B, Bhande SS, Panneerdoss S, Sriram S (2005) Efficacy trial on the purified compounds of the seeds of Carica papaya for male contraception in albino rat. Reprod Toxicol 20:135–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Domínguez XA (1985) Métodos de investigación fitoquímica. Limusa, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jasso de Rodríguez D, Hernández-Castillo D, Rodriguez-Garcia R, Angulo-Sanchez JL (2005) Antifungal activity in vitro of Aloe vera pulp and liquid fraction against plan pathogenic fungi. Ind Crops Prod 21:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chandrasekaran M, Venkatesalu M (2004) Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Syzygium jambolanum seeds. J Ethnopharmacol 91:105–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Puangsri T, Abdulkarim Sm, Ghazali HM (2005) Properties of Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed oil following extractions using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods. J Food Lip 12:67–76Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh ID (1990) Papaya. Oxford/IBH Publishing, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Azarkan M, Wintjen R, Looze Y, Baeyens-Volant D (2004) Detection of three wound-induced proteins in papaya latex. Phytochemistry 65:525–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Takeoka G, Dao L, Wong RY, Lundin R, Mahoney N (2001) Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts. J Agric Food Chem 49:3316–3320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carmona FR, Darío LO, González SM, Muñoz CA (2006) Optimización de un proceso de obtención de extracto acuoso de Calendula officinalis Lin. Rev Cub Plant Med 11:3–4Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hadi S, Bremner JB (2001) Initial studies on alkaloids from Lombok medicinal plants. Molecules 6:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marston A, Hostettmann K (2006) Separation and quantification of flavonoids. In: Andersen OM, Markham KR (eds) Flavonoids: chemistry, biochemistry, applications. CRC Press/Taylor Francis, Boca Raton, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oloyede OI (2005) Chemical profile of unripe pulp of Carica papaya L. Pak J Nutr 4:379–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marfo EK, Oke OL, Afolabi OA (1986) Chemical composition of papaya (Carica papaya) seeds. Food Chem 22:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ordoñez VP, Vega EM, Malagón AO (2006) Phytochemical study of native plant species used in traditional medicine in Loja province. Lyonia 10:65–71Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oliva A, Meepagala K, Wedge D, Harries D, Hale A, Aliotta G, Duke S (2003) Natural fungicides from Ruta graveolens L. leaves, including a new quinolone alkaloid. J Agric Food Chem 51:890–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aqil F, Ahmad I (2003) Broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties of certain traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 19:653–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen Y-T, Hsu L-H, Huang I-P, Tsai T-C, Lee G-C, Shaw J-F (2007) Gene cloning and characterization of a novel recombinant antifungal chitinase from papaya (Carica papaya). J Agric Food Chem 55:714–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dababneh BF, Khalil A (2007) The inhibitory effect of extracts from Jordanian medicinal plants against phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Pathol J 6:191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bautista-Baños S, Hernández-López M, Bosquez-Molina E, Wilson CL (2003) Effects of chitosan and plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, anthracnose levels and quality of papaya fruit. Crop Prot 22:1087–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Peraza-Sánchez S, Chan-Che E, Ruíz-Sánchez E (2005) Screening of Yucatecan plant extracts to control Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and isolation of a new pimarene from Acacia pennatula. J Agric Food Chem 53:2429–2432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bajpai VK, Shukla S, Kang S (2008) Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil and various extract of Silene armeria L. Bioresour Technol 99:8903–8908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carpinella M, Giorda L, Ferrayoli C, Palacios S (2003) Antifungal effects of different organic extracts from Melia azedarach L. on phytopathogenic fungi and their isolated active components. J Agric Food Chem 51:2506–2511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nostro A, Germano AM, D’Angelo V, Marino A, Cannatelli M (2000) Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity. Lett Appl Microbiol 30:379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Maregesi S, Pieters L, Ngassapa O, Apers S, Vingerhoets R, Cos P, Vanden Berghe D, Vlietinck A (2008) Screening of some Tanzanian medicinal plants from Bunda district for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. J Ethnopharmacol 119:58–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Chávez-Quintal
    • 1
  • Tania González-Flores
    • 1
  • Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil
    • 1
  • Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco A.C.Unidad SuresteMéridaMéxico

Personalised recommendations