Advertisement

Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 37–43 | Cite as

Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) Fungus Inoculated and Non-inoculated Maize Plants Under Zinc Deficiency

  • Kizhaeral S. SubramanianEmail author
  • J. S. Virgine Tenshia
  • Kaliyaperumal Jayalakshmi
  • V. Ramachandran
Original Article

Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith inoculated (M+) and non-inoculated (M−) maize (Zea mays L.) plants (variety COHM5) under varying levels of zinc (0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 mg kg−1). Roots and shoots sampled at 45 days after sowing (DAS) were estimated for its antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase) IAA oxidase, polyphenol oxidase, acid phosphatase and nutritional status especially P and Zn concentrations. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased all the four antioxidant enzymes in both roots and shoots at 45 DAS regardless of Zn levels. All enzyme activities except SOD increased progressively with increasing levels of Zn under M+ and M− conditions. The SOD activity got decreased in roots and shoots at 2.5 and 3.75 mg Zn kg−1. Acid phosphatase activity in M+ roots and shoots were higher in all levels of Zn but the values decreased with increasing levels of Zn particularly in roots. Mycorrhizal fungus inoculated plants had higher P and Zn concentrations in both stages in comparison to non-inoculated plants. Our overall data suggest that mycorrhizal symbiosis plays a vital role in enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and nutritional status that enables the host plant to sustain zinc deficient conditions.

Keywords

Arbuscular mycorrhiza Zinc Maize Antioxidant enzymes Nutrition 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors sincerely thank the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Board of Research on Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Trombay, Mumbai for financially supported the scheme Transfer of 65Zn in maize-mycorrhizal symbiosis—A Potential Mechanism to Alleviate Host Plant Zinc Deficiency (2005/35/30/BRNS/2810).

References

  1. 1.
    Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Singh B, Senthil Kumar A, Natesan B, Singh K, Usha K (2005) Improving zinc use efficiency of cereals under zinc deficiency. Curr Sci 88:36–44Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cakmak I (2000) Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. New Phytol 146:185–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1984) Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 219:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asada K (1994) Production and action of active oxygen species in photosynthetic tissues. In: Foyer CH, Mullineaux PM (eds) Causes of photooxidative stress and amelioration of defense systems in plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 77–104Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cakmak I, Marschner H (1993) Effect of zinc nutritional status on activities of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes in bean leaves. Plant Soil 155(156):127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vallee BL, Falchuk KH (1993) The biochemical basis of zinc physiology. Physiol Rev 73:79–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harinasut P, Poonsopa D, Roengmongkol K, Charoensataporn R (2003) Salinity effects on antioxidant enzymes in mulberry cultivar. Sci Asia 29:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bowler C, Van Montagu M, Inze D (1992) Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:83–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cakmak I, Torun B, Erenoglu B, Ozturk L, Marschner H, Kalayci M, Ekiz H, Yilmaz A (1998) Morphological and physiological differences in cereals in response to Zn deficiency. Euphytica 100:349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jakobsen I, Abbott LK, Robson AD (1992) External hyphae of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Trifolium subterraneum L. 1. Spread of hyphae and phosphorus inflow into roots. New Phytol 120:371–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li XL, Marschner H, Romheld V (1991) Acquisition of phosphorus and copper by VA-mycorrhizal hyphae and root to shoot transport in white clover. Plant Soil 136:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Faber BA, Zasoski RJ, Burau RG, Uriu K (1990) Zinc uptake by corn affected by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. Plant Soil 129:121–131Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kothari SK, Marschner H, Romheld V (1991) Contribution of the VA mycorrhizal hyphae in acquisition of phosphorus and zinc by maize grown in calcareous soil. Plant Soil 131:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ryan MH, Angus JF (2003) Arbuscular mycorrhizae in wheat and field pea crops on a low P soil: increased Zn uptake but no increase in P uptake or yield. Plant Soil 250:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dalpé Y (1993) Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. In: Carter MR (ed) Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, p 287Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beyer WF, Fridovich I (1987) Assaying for superoxide dismutase activity: some large consequences of minor changes in conditions. Anal Biochem 161:559–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sadasivam S, Manickam A (1996) Biochemical methods, 2nd edn. New Age International (P) limited, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lobo MG, Cano MP (1998) Preservation of hermaphrodite and female papaya fruits (Carica papaya L.,) by freezing: physical, physico chemical and sensorial aspects. Eur Food Res Toxicol 206:343–349Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dodd JC, Burton CC, Jeffries P (1987) Phosphatase activity associated with the roots and the rhizosphere of plants infected with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 107:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bray HG, Thorpe WV (1954) Estimation of phenols. In: Glick D (ed) Methods of biochemical analysis. Interscience Publishing Inc., New York, p 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lowry OH, Rose Brough NJ, Farr LA, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Piper CS (1966) Soil and plant analysis. Hans Publishers, BombayGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Menconi M, Sgherri CLM, Pinzino C, Navari-izzo F (1995) Activated oxygen species production and detoxification in wheat plants subjected to a water deficit programme. J Exp Bot 46:1123–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ruiz-Lozano JM, Azcon R, Palma JM (1996) Superoxide dismutase activity in arbuscular mycorrhizal Lactuca sativa plants subjected to drought stress. New Phytol 134:327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cakmak I, Marschner H (1988) Enhanced superoxide radical production in roots of zinc deficient plants. J Exp Bot 39:1449–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Castillo FJ (1992) Peroxidases and stress. In: Penel C, Gaspar T, Greppin H (eds) Plant peroxidases: topics and detailed literature on molecular, biochemical and physiological aspects. University of Geneva, Geneva, p 187Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mathur N, Vyas A (1996) Biochemical changes in Ziziphus xylopyrus by VA mycorrhizae. Bot Bull Acad Sin 37:209–212Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hao Z, Christie P, Quin L, Wan C, Li X (2005) Control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber seedlings by inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. J Plant Nutr 28:1961–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tsui C (1948) The role of zinc in auxin synthesis in the tomato plant. Am J Bot 35:172–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khalil S, Loynachan TE, Tabatabai MA (1994) Mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient uptake by improved and unimproved corn and soybean cultivars. Agron J 86:949–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goicoechea N, Antolin MC, Strnad M, Diaz MS (1996) Root cytokinins, acid phosphatase and nodule activity in drought stressed mycorrhizal or nitrogen fixing alfalfa plants. J Exp Bot 47:683–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Subramanian KS, Charest C (1998) Arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen assimilation in maize after drought and recovery. Physiol Plant 102:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Arines J, Palma JM, Viarino A (1993) Comparison of protein pattern in non mycorrhizal and VA mycorrhizal roots of red clover. New Phytol 123:763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kizhaeral S. Subramanian
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. S. Virgine Tenshia
    • 1
  • Kaliyaperumal Jayalakshmi
    • 1
  • V. Ramachandran
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Board of Research on Nuclear SciencesBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations