Topological influence on optimality of Tit-for-Tat based P2P content distribution

  • Masahiro SasabeEmail author


Peer-to-Peer (P2P) content distribution is a powerful scheme to distribute content on the Internet. Since the P2P content distribution relies on the cooperation among peers, one of the most famous P2P file distribution systems, BitTorrent, has applied a game theoretical approach called the Tit-for-Tat (TFT) strategy to encourage selfish peers to cooperatively exchange the fragments of a file, i.e., pieces, with others. In recent years, the basic characteristics of such TFT-based P2P content distribution under a full-mesh network has been investigated by modeling the determination of the optimal piece flow as Integer Linear Programming (ILP). However, the topological influence on optimal piece flow has not been revealed yet. In this paper, we propose an approach to analyze the topological influence by extending the previous model. Through numerical results, we reveal that the optimal piece flow can be achieved on a hierarchical and circular topology with O(NP) links where NP is the number of peers. We also show the whole network can be divided into multiple sub-networks while keeping the system performance.


Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Content distribution Tit-for-Tat strategy Integer Linear Programming (ILP) Optimal piece flow Topological influence 



  1. 1.
    Jamjoom H, Shin KG (2003) Persistent dropping: an efficient control of traffic aggregates. In: Proc. of SIGCOMM ’03, pp 287–298Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D’Acunto L, Vinko T, Pouwelse J (2010) Do BitTorrent-Like VoD systems scale under flash-crowds?. In: Proc. of p2p’10 , pp 1–4Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carbunaru C, Teo YM, Leong B, Ho T (2014) Modeling flash crowd performance in peer-to-peer file distribution. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 25(10):2617–2626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    BitTorrent Inc.: BitTorrent. (Accessed 31 Oct. 2018)
  5. 5.
    Microsoft: windows update delivery optimization. (Accessed 31 Oct. 2018)
  6. 6.
    PPLive Inc.: PPTV.
  7. 7.
    Hughes D, Coulson G, Walkerdine J (2005) Free riding on gnutella revisited: the bell tolls? IEEE Distrib Syst Online 6(6):1– 18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasegawa M, Sasabe M, Takine T (2014) Analysis of optimal scheduling in Tit-for-Tat-based P2P file distribution. IEICE Transactions on Communications E97-B(12):2650–2657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sasabe M (2018) Analysis of optimal piece flow in Tit-for-Tat-Based P2P streaming. Comput Net 139(5):60–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimizer. (Accessed 31 Oct. 2018)
  11. 11.
    Huang W, Wu C, Li Z, Lau FC (2014) The performance and locality tradeoff in Bittorrent-Like file sharing systems. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications 7(4):469–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang H, Neglia G, Towsley D, Presti GL (2007) On unstructured file sharing networks. In: Proceedings of 26th IEEE international conference on computer communications (INFOCOM ’07), pp 2189–2197Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Neglia G, Presti GL, Zhang H, Towsley D (2007) A network formation game approach to study BitTorrent Tit-for-Tat. In: Proceedings of the 1st EuroFGI international conference on network control and optimization, pp 13–22Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stutzbach D, Rejaie R, Sen S (2008) Characterizing unstructured overlay topologies in modern P2P file-sharing systems. IEEE/ACM Trans Networking 16(2):267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhong L, Kihl M, Wang X (2012) Topological model and analysis of the P2P BitTorrent protocol. Int J Syst Control Inform Process 1(1):54–70Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yin B, Lu X, Huang J, Kang Y (2016) Analysis of topology dynamics for unstructured P2P networks. Comput Commun 80:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Su M, Zhang H, Du X, Fang B, Guizani M (2013) A measurement study on the topologies of BitTorrent networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 31(9):338–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu C, Li B, Zhao S (2008) Exploring large-scale Peer-to-Peer live streaming topologies. ACM Trans Multimed Comput Commun Appl 4(3):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vu L, Gupta I, Nahrstedt K, Liang J (2010) Understanding overlay characteristics, of a large-scale Peer-to-Peer IPTV system. ACM Trans Multimedia Comput Commun Appl 6(4):31:1–31:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li B, Ma M, Jin Z, Zhao D (2012) Investigation of a large-scale P2P VoD overlay network by measurements. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications 5(4):398–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garlaschelli D, Loffredo MI (2004) Patterns of link reciprocity in directed networks. Phys Rev Lett 93 (26):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rousseau R, Zhang L (2008) Betweenness centrality and Q-measures in directed valued networks. Scientometrics 75(3):575–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marza V, Dehghan M, Akbari B (2015) A new peer-to-peer topology for video streaming based on complex network theory. J Syst Sci Complex 28(1):16–29CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pouwelse J, Garbacki P, Epema D, Sips H (2005) The bittorrent P2P file-sharing system: measurements and analysis. Peer-to-Peer Systems IV: 205–216Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen D, Batson RG, Dang Y (2010) Applied integer programming. Wiley, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNara Institute of Science and TechnologyIkomaJapan

Personalised recommendations