Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 228–240 | Cite as

Sidelobe interference reduced scheduling algorithm for mmWave device-to-device communication networks

  • Lei Wang
  • Siran Liu
  • Mingkai Chen
  • Guan GuiEmail author
  • Hikmet Sari


Millimeter wave (mmWave) is considered one of effective techniques to realize high speed transmission in device-to-device (D2D) communication networks. However, strong density of mmWave devices poses a big challenge to remove interferences. Traditional resource allocation methods may not be efficient to solve this problem. Different from the previous studies, this paper first introduces time and space division for scheduling in mmWave D2D communication networks. Then, we formulate a time slot allocation problem aiming at maximizing the network throughput per time slot. To handle this problem, we propose a vertex coloring based resource allocation algorithm and redefine concurrent transmission conditions by defining a power decision threshold, which is designed to further reduce the sidelobe interference. Simulation results confirm that different threshold value has different effect on the algorithm and the optimal range is [0.7, 0.9]. It can be also observed that our scheduling algorithm outperforms traditional time division multiple access (TDMA) and traditional vertex coloring algorithm. The throughput per slot of the proposed algorithm is significantly improved around 12.5%.


Device-to-device (D2D) communication Resource allocation Time and space division Sidelobe interference 



This work is partly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61571240, 61601005, 61671253); the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions; the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20161517); the Qing Lan Project; the Major Projects of the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (16KJA510004); the open research fund of National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of RF Integration and Micro-Assembly Technology, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (KFJJ20170305); the Open Research Fund of National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University (2016D01); the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.


  1. 1.
    Rappaport TS, Heath RW Jr, Daniels RC et al (2015) Millimeter wave wireless communications. Prentice Hall, NJGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu J, Kato N, Ma J, Kadowaki N (2015) Device-to-device communication in LTE-advanced networks: a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 17(4):1923–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhou Z, Ma G, Dong M, Ota K, Xu C, Jia Y (2016) Iterative energy-efficient stable matching approach for context-aware resource allocation in D2D communications. IEEE Access 4:6181–6196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou L, Wu D, Dong Z, Li X (2017) When collaboration hugs intelligence: content delivery over ultra-dense networks. IEEE Commun Mag 55(12):91–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ghosh A, Thomas TA, Cudak MC et al (2014) Millimeter-wave enhanced local area systems: a high-data-rate approach for future wireless networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 32 (6):1152–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nishiyama H, Ito M, Kato N (2014) Relay-by-smartphone: realizing multi-hop device-to-device communications. IEEE Commun Mag 52(4):56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu J, Nishiyama H, Kato N, Guo J (2016) On the outage probability of device-to-device communication enabled multi-channel cellular networks: a RSS threshold-based perspective. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 34(1):163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tang F, Fadlullah ZMd, Kato N, Ono F, Miura R (2017) AC-POCA: anti-coordination game based partially overlapping channels assignment in combined UAV and D2D based networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.
  9. 9.
    Liu J, Zhang S, Kato N, Ujikawa H, Suzuki K (2015) Device-to-device communications for enhancing quality of experience in software defined multi-tier LTE-a networks. IEEE Netw 29(4):46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhou L (2015) Mobile device-to-device video distribution: theory and application. ACM Trans Multimed Comput Commun Appl 12(3):1253–1271Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhou Z, Ota K, Dong M, Xu C (2017) Energy-efficient matching for resource allocation in D2D enabled cellular networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol (TVT) 66(6):5256–5268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lyu B, Yang Z, Gui G (2018) Non-orthogonal multiple access in wireless powered communication networks with sic constraints?. IEICE Trans Fund Electron Commun Comput Sci E101-B(4): 1–8Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qiao J, Cai LX, (Sherman) Shen X, Mark JW (2012) STDMA-based scheduling algorithm for concurrent transmissions in direc- tional millimeter wave networks. In: IEEE international conference on communications (ICC). Ottawa, pp 5221–5225Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sim GH, Loch A, Asadi A et al (2016) 5G millimeter-wave and D2D symbiosis: 60 GHz for proximity-based services. IEEE Wirel Commun 24(4):140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ji M, Caire G, Molisch AF (2015) Wireless device-to-device caching networks: basic principles and system performance. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 34(1):176–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhou L, Wu D, Chen J, Dong Z (2017) Greening the smart cities: energy-efficient massive content delivery via D2D communications, to appear in IEEE transactions on industrial informatics.
  17. 17.
    Li H, Ota K, Dong M, Chen HH (2017) Efficient energy transport in 60 GHz for wireless industrial sensor networks. IEEE Wirel Commun 24(5):143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou Z, Dong M, Ota K, Wang G, Yang LT (2016) Energy-efficient resource allocation for D2D communications underlaying cloud-RAN based LTE-a networks. IEEE Internet Things J 3(3):428–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cai LX, Cai L, (Sherman) Shen X, Mark JW (2007) Efficient resource management for mmWave WPANs. In: IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC). Kowloon, pp 3816–3821Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cai LX, Cai L, (Sherman) Shen X, Mark JW (2010) REX: a randomized exclusive region based scheduling scheme for mmWave WPANs withdirectional antenna. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 9(1):113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Qiao J, Cai LX, (Sherman) Shen X (2010) Multi-hop Concurrent Transmission in Millimeter Wave WPANs with Directional Antenna. In: IEEE international conference on communications (ICC). Cape Town, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Niu Y, Gao C, Li Y et al (2015) Exploiting device-to-device communications in joint scheduling of access and Backhaul for mmWave small cells. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 33(10):2052–2069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li Y, Zhang Z, Wang W, Wang H (2017) Concurrent transmission based stackelberg game for D2D communications in mmWave networks. In: IEEE international conference on communications (ICC). Paris, pp 21–25Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zheng K, Zhao L, Mei J et al (2015) 10 Gb/s hetsnets with millimeter-wave communications: access and networking - challenges and protocols. IEEE Commun Mag 53(1):222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    IEEE Standard for Information Technology-Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems-Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Specific Requirements. Part 15.3: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for High Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Amendment 2: Millimeter-Wave-Based Alternative Physical Layer Extension, IEEE Std 802.15.3c-2009, 2009, pp 1C187Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    IEEE 802.11 Working Group, IEEE Standard for Information TechnologyCTelecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems-Local and Metropolitan Area NetworksCSpecific Requirements-Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 3: Enhancements for Very High Throughput in the 60 GHz Band, IEEE Standard 802.11ad-2012, 2012, pp 1C628Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    ISO/IEC/IEEE, ISO/IEC/IEEE international standard for information technologyTelecommunications and information exchange between systemsLocal and metropolitan area networksCSpecific requirements-Part 11: Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications amendment 3: Enhancements for very high throughput in the 60 GHz band (adoption of IEEE Std 802.11ad-2012) ISO/IEC/IEEE 8802C11:2012/Amd.3:2014(E), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, 2014, pp 1C634Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhou L, Wu D, Chen J, Dong Z (2017) When computation hugs intelligence: content-aware data processing for industrial IoT. to appear in IEEE Internet of Things Journal.
  29. 29.
    Peng H, Li D, Ye Q et al (2017) Resource allocation for D2D-enabled inter-vehicle communications in multiplatoons. In: IEEE international conference on communications (ICC). Paris, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lei L, Kuang Y, Cheng N, (Sherman) Shen X et al (2015) Delay-optimal dynamic mode selection and resource allocation in device-to-device communicationsPart I: optimal policy. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65 (5):3474–3490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wu D, Wang J, Hu RQ, Cai Y, Zhou L (2014) Energy-efficient resource sharing for mobile device-to-device multimedia communication. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 10(5):2093–2103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu D, Zhou L, Cai Y, Hu RQ, Yi Q (2014) The role of mobility for D2D communications in LTE-advanced networks: energy- vs. bandwidth-efficiency. IEEE Wirel Commun Mag 21(2):66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li X, Dong E, Qiao F et al (2012) Vertex coloring based distributed link scheduling for wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE communications asia-pacific conference (APCC). Jeju Island, pp 754–759Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rehman Wr, Han J, Yang C et al (2014) On scheduling algorithm for device-to-device communication in 60 GHz networks. In: IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC). Istanbul, pp 2474–2479Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jo O, Yoon J (2017) Spatial reuse algorithm using interference graph in millimeter wave beamforming systems. ETRI J 39(2):255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gronkvist J, Hansson A (2001) Comparison between graph-based and interference-based STDMA scheduling. In: ACM interational symposium on mobile Ad Hoc networking and computing (MOBIHOC). Long Beach, pp 255–258Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shokri-Ghadikolaei H, Gkatzikis L, Fischione C (2015) Beam-searching and transmission scheduling in millimeter wave communications. In: IEEE international conference on communications (ICC), London, pp 9–14Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kim M, Kim Y, Lee W (2014) Resource allocation scheme for millimeter wave-based WPANs using directional antennas. ETRI J 36(3):385–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Toyoda I et al (2007) Reference Antenna model with side lobe for TG3c evaluation. IEEE 802.15-06-0474-00-003c, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hajek B, Sasaki G (1988) Link scheduling in polynomial time. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 34(5):910–917MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Randall Brown J (1972) Chromatic scheduling and the chromatic number problem. Manag Sci 19(4):456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of RF Integration and Micro-Assembly TechnologyNanjing University of Posts and TelecommunicationsNanjingChina
  2. 2.National Mobile Communications Research LaboratorySoutheast UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations