Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 175–193 | Cite as

Validation of H-P2PSIP, a scalable solution for interoperability among different overlay networks

  • Isaias Martinez-YelmoEmail author
  • Roberto Gonzalez-Sanchez
  • Carmen Guerrero


This paper reports the results of experiments from an implementation of H-P2PSIP, a hierarchical overlay architecture based on the ongoing work in the IETF P2PSIP Working Group. This architecture allows the exchange of information among different independent overlay networks through the use of a two-layer architecture based on super-peers and hierarchical identifiers. The validation of this proposal is based on a Linux based real implementation where we have used four different scenarios with 1,000 peers in order to perform different experiments. We have obtained results for different parameters such as routing performance (number of hops), delay, routing state (number of overlay routing entries) and bandwidth consumption.


Hierarchical overlay P2PSIP Implementation Validation Interconnection Interoperability 



We would like to acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and Felix Gomez- Fernandez for his collaboration in this work. This research was supported in part by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement n 25774 (TREND Network of Excellence), Comunidad de Madrid grant S-2009/TIC-1468 (MEDIANET project) and Spanish MICINN grant TEC2011-29688-C02-02 (eeCONTENT project).


  1. 1.
    Artigas M, Lopez P, Ahullo J, Skarmeta A (2005) Cyclone: a novel design schema for hierarchical dhts. In: Fifth IEEE international conference on peer-to-peer computing, 2005, P2P 2005, pp 49–56Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banerjee S, Griffin T, Pias M (2004) The interdomain connectivity of Planetlab nodes. In: Passive and active network measurement, pp 73–82Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baset S, Schulzrinne H, Matuszewski M (2007) Peer-to-peer protocol (P2PP). Internet draft draft-baset-p2psip-p2pp-01.txtGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bauer K, Sherr M, McCoy D, Grunwald D (2011) Experimentor: a testbed for safe and realistic tor experimentation. In: Proceedings of the 4th conference on cyber security experimentation and test, CSET’11. USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp 7–7.
  5. 5.
    Bryan D, Matthews P, Shim E, Willis D, Dawkins S (2010) Concepts and terminology for peer to peer sip. Internet draft draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-03.txtGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Castro M, Druschel P, Kermarrec AM, Rowstron A (2002) Scribe: a large-scale and decentralized application-level multicast infrastructure. IEEE JSAC 20(8):1489–1499Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castro M, Druschel P, Kermarrec AM, Rowstron A (2003) Scalable application-level anycast for highly dynamic groups. In: Group communications and charges. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2816. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–57Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen X, Chu X, Liu J (2010) A lightweight emulator for bittorrent-like file sharing systems. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp 1–5. doi: 10.1109/ICC.2010.5502796
  9. 9.
    Cheng L (2007) Bridging distributed hash tables in wireless ad-hoc networks. In: Global telecommunications conference, 2007, GLOBECOM ’07. IEEE, pp 5159–5163Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cheng L, Ocampo R, Jean K, Galis A, Simon C, Szabo R, Kersch P, Giaffreda R (2006) Towards distributed hash tables (de)composition in ambient networks. In: Large scale management of distributed systems. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 4269. Springer, Berlin, pp 258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chun B, Chun B, Spalink T (2003) Slice creation and management. Tech. rep., Intel Research Berkeley and Princeton UniversityGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chun B, Culler D, Roscoe T, Bavier A, Peterson L, Wawrzoniak M, Bowman M (2003) Planetlab: an overlay testbed for broad-coverage services. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 33(3):3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Douceur J (2002) The sybil attack. In: Druschel P, Kaashoek F, Rowstron A (eds) Peer-to-peer systems. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2429. Springer, Berlin, pp 251–260Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Erman D, Ilie D, Popescu A (2009) Bittorrent session characteristics and models. River Publishers Series in Information Science and Technology. Special Issue in Traffic Engineering, Performance Evaluation Studies and Tools for Heterogeneous Networks 1:61–84Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fonseca P, Rodrigues R, Gupta A, Liskov B (2009) Full-information lookups for peer-to-peer overlays. IEEE TPDS 20(9):1339–1351. doi: 10.1109/TPDS.2008.222 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Furtado P (2007) Multiple dynamic overlay communities and inter-space routing. In: Databases, information systems, and peer-to-peer computing. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 4125. Springer, Berlin, pp 38–49Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ganesan P, Gummadi K, Garcia-Molina H (2004) Canon in G major: designing DHTs with hierarchical structure. In: Proceedings of the 24th international conference on distributed computing systems (ICDCS’04) (ICDCS ’04). IEEE computer society. Washington, DC, USA, pp 263–272Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garces-Erice L, Biersack EW, Ross KW, Felber PA, Urvoy-Keller G (2004) Hierarchical P2P systems. In: Euro-Par 2003 parallel processing, vol 2790, Springer, pp 1230–1239Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hersent O, Petit J, Gurle D (2005) Beyond VoIP protocols: understanding voice technology and networking techniques for IP telephony. Wiley.
  21. 21.
    Hibler M, Ricci R, Stoller L, Duerig J, Guruprasad S, Stack T, Webb K, Lepreau J (2008) Large-scale virtualization in the emulab network testbed. In: USENIX annual technical conference. USENIX Association, pp 113–128Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Internet usage statistics (2012)
  23. 23.
    Jennings C, Lowekamp B, Rescorla E, Baset S, Schulzrinne H (2011) A sip usage for reload. Internet draft draft-ietf-p2psip-sip-06.txtGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jennings C, Lowekamp BB, Rescorla E, Baset S, Schulzrinne H (2011) Resource location and discovery (reload) base protocol. Internet draft draft-ietf-p2psip-base-16.txtGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ko SK, Kim YH, Oh SH, Lee BT, Avila VP (2009) Iptv usage for reload. Internet draft draft-softgear-p2psip-iptv-02.txtGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lakshman A, Malik P (2010) Cassandra: a decentralized structured storage system. ACM SIGOPS Oper Syst Rev 44(2):35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leonini L, Rivière E, Felber P (2009) Splay: distributed systems evaluation made simple (or how to turn ideas into live systems in a breeze). In: Proceedings of the 6th USENIX symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, NSDI’09. USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp 185–198.
  28. 28.
    Martinez-Yelmo I, Bikfalvi A, Guerrero C, Cuevas R, Mauthe A (2008) Enabling global multimedia distributed services based on hierarchical dht overlay networks. IJIPT International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology 3(4):234–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Martinez-Yelmo I, Bikfalvi A, Guerrero C, Cuevas R, Mauthe A (2008) Enabling global multimedia distributed services based on hierarchical dht overlay networks. In: The Second International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, 2008, NGMAST ’08, pp 543–549. doi: 10.1109/NGMAST.2008.42
  30. 30.
    Martinez-Yelmo I, Cuevas R, Guerrero C, Mauthe A (2008) Routing performance in a hierarchical dht-based overlay network. In: 16th Euromicro conference on parallel, distributed and network-based processing, 2008, PDP 2008, pp 508–515. doi: 10.1109/PDP.2008.79
  31. 31.
    Martinez-Yelmo I, Bikfalvi A, Cuevas R, Guerrero C, Garcia J (2009) H-P2PSIP: Interconnection of P2PSIP domains for global multimedia services based on a hierarchical dht overlay network. Comput Networks 53(4):556–568. Special Issue on Content Distribution Infrastructures for Community NetworksCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Martinez-Yelmo I, Guerrero C, Cuevas R, Mauthe A (2009) A hierarchical p2psip architecture to support skype-like services. In: 17th Euromicro international conference on parallel, distributed and network-based processing, 2009, pp 316–322. doi: 10.1109/PDP.2009.27
  33. 33.
    Martinez-Yelmo I, Gonzalez R, Guerrero C (2010) Benefits of an implementation of h-p2psip. In: The second international conference on advances in P2P systems, (AP2PS 2010). IARAGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Martinez-Yelmo I, Seoane I, Guerrero C (2010) Fair quality of experience (qoe) measurements related with networking technologies. In: Wired/wireless internet communications. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 6074. Springer, Berlin, pp 228–239Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matthews W, Cottrell L (2000) The PingER project: active internet performance monitoring for the henp community. Commun Mag 38(5):130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maymounkov P, Mazieres D (2002) Peer-to-peer systems: first international workshop, IPTPS 2002, Cambridge, MA, USA, 7–8 Mar 2002. Revised papers, Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2429/2002, chap. Kademlia: a peer-to-peer information system based on the XOR metric. Springer, pp 53–65Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Min SH, Holliday J, Cho DS (2006) Optimal super-peer selection for large-scale P2P system. In: International conference on Hybrid Information Technology, 2006, ICHIT’06, vol 2, pp 588–593Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mislove A, Druschel P (2005) Providing administrative control and autonomy in structured peer-to-peer overlays. In: Peer-to-peer systems III, pp 162–172Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mizrak AT, Cheng Y, Kumar V, Savage S (2003) Structured superpeers: leveraging heterogeneity to provide constant-time lookup. In: Proceedings of internet applications, WIAPP 2003, pp 104–111Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rhea S, Chun B, Kubiatowicz J, Shenker S (2005) Fixing the embarrassing slowness of opendht on Planetlab. In: Proc. of the second USENIX workshop on real, large distributed systems, pp 25–30Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rosenberg J (2010) Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): a protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT) traversal for offer/answer protocols. RFC 5245 (proposed standard)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sanchez-Artigas M, Garcia-Lopez P, Skarmeta AFG (2008) On the feasibility of dynamic superpeer ratio maintenance. In: P2P ’08: proceedings of the 2008 eighth international conference on peer-to-peer computing. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steiner M, En-Najjary T, Biersack EW (2007) A global view of kad. In: IMC ’07: Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on internet measurement. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 117–122Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stoica I, Morris R, Liben-Nowell D, Karger D, Kaashoek M, Dabek F, Balakrishnan H (2003) Chord: a scalable peer-to-peer lookup protocol for internet applications. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 11(1):17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vahdat A, Yocum K, Walsh K, Mahadevan P, Kostić D, Chase J, Becker D (2002) Scalability and accuracy in a large-scale network emulator. SIGOPS Oper Syst Rev 36(SI):271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vratonjić N, Gupta P, Knežević N, Kostić D, Rowstron A (2007) Enabling dvd-like features in p2p video-on-demand systems. In: Proceedings of the 2007 workshop on peer-to-peer streaming and IP-TV, P2P-TV ’07. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 329–334. doi:10.1145/1326320.1326326
  47. 47.
    Wang J, Shen J, Meng Y (2009) Content sharing usage for reload. Internet draft draft-shen-p2psip-content-sharing-00.txtGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Xu Z, Min R, Hu Y (2003) Hieras: a dht based hierarchical P2P routing algorithm. In: International conference on parallel processing, 2003. Proceedings, pp 187–194Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhou Z, Wang H, Zhou J, Tang L, Li K, Zheng W, Fang M (2006) Pigeon: a framework for testing peer-to-peer massively multiplayer online games over heterogeneous network. In: Consumer communications and networking conference, 2006, CCNC 2006. 3rd IEEE, vol 2, pp 1028–1032. doi: 10.1109/CCNC.2006.1593194

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isaias Martinez-Yelmo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roberto Gonzalez-Sanchez
    • 2
  • Carmen Guerrero
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidad de AlcaláMadridSpain
  2. 2.Universidad Carlos III de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations