Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 265–276 | Cite as

Stealth modification versus nuisance attacks in the LOCKSS peer-to-peer digital preservation system

Article

Abstract

The LOCKSS system is a world-wide peer-to-peer system for the preservation of academic journals and other archival information published on the Web. The system is deployed at over 200 libraries around the world and currently preserving titles of publishers representing more than 2000 academic titles. It consists of a large number of independent, low-cost, persistent Web caches that cooperate to detect and repair damage to their content by voting in “opinion polls.” Based on our experience working with the LOCKSS system, in this paper, we identify and characterize a fundamental tradeoff in the system’s ability to defend against adversaries with competing goals. In particular, the techniques used to defend against adversaries attempting stealth modification of content being preserved in the system are at odds with those used to identify nuisance adversaries simply trying to disrupt system procedures. We show that with a simple change to the design of the system’s preservation protocol we are able to create moderately strong defense against both of these competing adversaries simultaneously.

Keywords

Digital preservation Peer-to-peer networks Security 

References

  1. 1.
    sourceforge.net (2009) Project: LOCKSS. http://sourceforge.net/projects/lockss/
  2. 2.
    Arzoomanian G (2009) The heath lowry affair. http://users.ids.net/~gregan/pac.html
  3. 3.
    Baker M, Keeton K, Martin S (2005) Why traditional storage systems don’t help us save stuff forever. In: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE workshop on hot topics in system dependability (HotDep), JapanGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bungale PP, Goodell G, Roussopoulos M (2005) Conservation vs. consensus in peer-to-peer preservation systems. In: Proceedings of the 4th international workshop on peer-to-peer systems (IPTPS), IthacaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burkard T (2002) Herodotus: a peer-to-peer web archival system. Master’s thesis, MITGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cooper BF, Garcia-Molina H (2005) Peer-to-peer data preservation through storage auctions. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 16:246–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cox LP, Noble BD (2003) Samsara: honor among thieves in peer-to-peer storage. In: Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM symposium on operating systems principles, Bolton Landing, pp 120–132Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Douceur J (2002) The Sybil attack. In: 1st intl. workshop on peer-to-peer systemsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giuli TJ, Baker M (2002) Narses: a scalable, flow-based network simulator. Technical report, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. arXiv:cs.PF/0211024
  10. 10.
    Giuli TJ, Maniatis P, Baker M, Rosenthal DSH, Roussopoulos M (2005) Attrition defenses for a peer-to-peer digital preservation system. In: Proceedings of the USENIX annual technical conference, AnaheimGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    HiveCache, Inc. (2009) Distributed disk-based backups. http://www.hivecache.com/
  12. 12.
    Keller M, Reich V, Herkovic A (2003) What is a library anymore, anyway? First Monday 8(5). http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue8_5/keller/index.html
  13. 13.
    Khatchatrian M (1997) Genocide scholar “Banished for Life” from Ottoman archives. http://www.cilicia.com/armo10e4.html
  14. 14.
    Lippard J, Jacobsen J (1995) Scientology v. the internet: free speech & copyright infringement on the information super-highway. Skeptic 3(3):35–41. http://www.skeptic.com/03.3.jl-jj-scientology.html Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maniatis P, Roussopoulos M, Giuli TJ, Rosenthal DSH, Baker M, Muliadi Y (2003) Preserving peer replicas by rate-limited sampled voting. In: SOSPGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maniatis P, Roussopoulos M, Giuli TJ, Rosenthal DSH, Baker M, Muliadi Y (2005) LOCKSS: a peer-to-peer digital preservation system. ACM Trans Comp Syst 23(1):2–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mogge D (1999) Seven years of tracking electronic publishing: the ARL directory of electronic journals, newsletters and academic discussion lists. Library Hi Tech 17(1):17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Parno B, Roussopoulos M (2004) Predicting adversary infiltration in the lockss system. Technical report TR-28-04, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosenthal DSH, Reich V (2000) Permanent web publishing. In: Proceedings of the USENIX annual technical conference, freenix track, San Diego, pp 129–140Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tenopir C (2004) Online scholarly journals: how many? Libr J 2(2). http://www.libraryjournal.com/index.asp?layout=articlePrint&articleID=CA374956
  21. 21.
    Wallach D (2002) A survey of peer-to-peer security issues. In: intl. symp. on software securityGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Informatics and TelecommunicationsUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.School of Engineering and Applied SciencesHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations