Theoretical Ecology

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 347–363 | Cite as

The evolutionary stability of partial migration under different forms of competition

  • H. A. OhmsEmail author
  • A. Mohapatra
  • D. A. Lytle
  • P. De Leenheer


Partial migration is a unique form of phenotypic diversity wherein migrant and non-migrant individuals coexist together in a population. Recent research has shown that the partial migration can be an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) and convergent stable strategy (CSS) if migrants and non-migrants experience density-dependent competition among individuals of the same type during reproduction. However, not all partially migratory species experience this particular form of competition during reproduction. In this paper, we investigate how various degrees of competition between migrants and non-migrants influence whether or not partial migration is an ESS and CSS. We find that the degree of competition influences the evolutionary outcome of partial migration and provides sharp thresholds relating these degrees of competition to the carrying capacities of both phenotypes.


Partial migration Evolutionarily Stable strategies Adaptive dynamics Density-dependent competition 



HAO is grateful to C.E. Jordan, G.R. Reeves, C.E. Zimmerman, and the USGS Alaska Science Center for their support.

Funding information

This work was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-017 and USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Joint Venture Agreement 13-JV-11261953-011 to HAO and DAL, along with support from NSF-DMS-1411853 to PDL.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrative BiologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Marine BiologyUniversity of California Santa CruzSanta CruzUSA
  3. 3.Fisheries Ecology DivisionNOAA Southwest Fisheries Science CenterSanta CruzUSA
  4. 4.Department of Mathematics and StatisticsOakland UniversityRochesterUSA
  5. 5.Department of MathematicsOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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