Development of a Regional Taste Test that Uses Edible Circles for Stimulus Delivery
- 15 Downloads
Measurements of chemosensory function within specific regions of the tongue can yield important information about the sensitivity of lingual areas to chemosensory stimuli and may identify possible nerve damage. A novel regional chemosensory test that uses thin edible circles was developed for human testing.
Edible circles placed at six different regions of the tongue were used to examine regional sensitivity to quinine for bitter taste, NaCl for salt taste, sucralose for sweet taste, and capsaicin for pungency. The six regions included the anterior tip of the tongue, the left and right lateral margins of the tongue (anterior and posterior), and the circumvallate region. Testing was completed with the mouth open, and the mouth closed.
Intensity ratings at all sites were higher in the closed mouth condition for the three taste stimuli. Quinine intensity was highest at the circumvallate region with the mouth closed. NaCl and sucralose intensity were highest at the anterior tip and circumvallate regions. Capsaicin intensity was most highly perceived at the anterior tip of the tongue, but open and closed mouth intensity ratings showed no significant differences.
Regional differences in chemosensory perception were observed on the tongue, and these differences were dependent on the chemosensory stimulus, tongue region, and tasting mode.
Edible circles show minimal diffusion with saliva, can be used to examine both taste and irritation, and may be used to identify regional papillae counts on the tongue. Finally, edible circles should be invaluable for examining damage to the oral cavity.
KeywordsRegional taste test Edible circles Bitter taste Salt taste Sweet taste Capsaicin Psychophysics
The authors thank Dow Chemical Co. for the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and Jacqueline Tanaka, Edward Gruberg, and Craig Brumwell for valuable discussions. An earlier version of this work was presented as an abstract at the 17th International Symposium of Olfaction and Taste (ISOT 2012).
This work was supported by NIDCD 2R44 DC007291 and funded in part by the URP program at Temple University.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All protocols performed in this study were in accordance with ethical standards of the sponsoring university’s institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects who participated in this study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Coldwell SE, Drangsholt MT, Huggins KH, Garson G, Scott MK, Hagstrom MK, LeResche L (2011) Reliability of a brief spatial test for assessment of gustatory function. Chem Senses 36:A24Google Scholar
- Doty RL, Heidt JM, MacGillivray MR, Dsouza M, Tracey EH, Mirza N, Bigelow D (2016) Influences of age, tongue region, and chorda tympani nerve sectioning on signal detection measures of lingual taste sensitivity. Physiol Behav 155:202–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eldeghaidy S, Thomas D, Skinner M, Ford R, Giesbrecht T, Thomas A, Hort J, Francis S (2018) An automated method to detect and quantify fungiform papillae in the human tongue: validation and relationship to phenotypical differences in taste perception. Physiol Behav 184:226–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hanig DP (1901) Zur psychophysik des Geschmackssines (to the psychophysics of taste). Phil Stud 17:576–623Google Scholar
- Hawkes CH (2002) Anatomy and physiology of taste sense. Smell and taste complaints. Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam, pp 123–145Google Scholar
- Kawakami S, Sato H, Sasaki AT, Tanabe HC, Yoshida Y, Saito M, Toyoda H, Sadato N, Kang Y (2016) The brain mechanisms underlying the perception of pungent taste of capsaicin and the subsequent autonomic responses. Front Hum Neurosci 9:720. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00720
- Kobayashi K, Kumakura M, Shinkai H, Ishii K (1994) Three-dimensional fine structure of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in the human tongue. Kaibogaku Zasshi (J Anat) 69:624–635Google Scholar
- Lyall V, Heck GL, Vinnikova AK, Ghosh S, Phan TH, Alam RI, Russell OF, Malik SA, Bigbee JW, DeSimone JA (2004) The mammalian amiloride-insensitive non-specific salt taste receptor is a vanilloid receptor-1 variant. J Physiol 558:147–159. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2004.065656 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Norton NS (2007) Netter’s head and neck anatomy for dentistry. Illustrations by Netter FH. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, p 402Google Scholar
- Scully C (2013) Oral and maxillofacial medicine: the basis of diagnosis and treatment, 3rd edn. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, Edinburgh, pp 401–402Google Scholar
- Smutzer G, Devassy RK (2016) Integrating TRPV1 receptor function with capsaicin psychophysics. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2016:1512457. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1512457
- Snyder DJ, Sims CA, Bartoshuk LM (2015) Psychophysical measures of human oral sensation. In: Doty RL (ed) Handbook of olfaction and gustation, 3rd edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp 751–773. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118971758.ch34