The effect of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcer bleeding after endoscopic interventions
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All previous studies reported the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients with either a mixture of nonvariceal and variceal bleeding or variceal bleeding alone. Reports on sole peptic ulcers bleeding are lacking. We aimed to assess the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcer bleeding after endoscopic interventions and the risk factors associated with recurrent bleeding.
A cross-sectional retrospective chart review study was conducted on 148 cirrhotic patients with acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage who underwent therapeutic endoscopic procedures. Patients who received prophylactic intravenous ceftriaxone were classified as group A (n = 38) and those who did not receive antibiotics were classified as group B (n = 110). The outcomes were prevention of infection, length of hospital stay, time of rebleeding, and death.
More patients suffered from recurrent bleeding and infection in group B than those in group A (28.2 vs. 5.3 %; p = 0.003, and 26.4 vs. 10.5 %; p = 0.043, respectively). The risk factors associated with recurrent bleeding were being male (OR = 3.4; p = 0.024), those with advanced stage of cirrhosis with Child–Pugh’s class C (OR = 3.8; p < 0.001), and those without antibiotic prophylaxis (OR = 8.9; p = 0.003). The observed 30-day survival was virtually identical for both groups (p = 0.279).
Antibiotic prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients after endoscopic interventions for acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage reduced infections and decreased rebleeding. Male gender, cirrhosis Child–Pugh’s class C, and no antibiotic prophylaxis were independent predictors of recurrent bleeding. Further studies should be directed to explore ways to improve the overall outcome of these patients.