Hepatology International

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 439–474 | Cite as

Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver consensus recommendations on hepatocellular carcinoma

  • Masao OmataEmail author
  • Laurentius A. Lesmana
  • Ryosuke Tateishi
  • Pei-Jer Chen
  • Shi-Ming Lin
  • Haruhiko Yoshida
  • Masatoshi Kudo
  • Jeong Min Lee
  • Byung Ihn Choi
  • Ronnie T. P. Poon
  • Shuichiro Shiina
  • Ann Lii Cheng
  • Ji-Dong Jia
  • Shuntaro Obi
  • Kwang Hyub Han
  • Wasim Jafri
  • Pierce Chow
  • Seng Gee Lim
  • Yogesh K. Chawla
  • Unggul Budihusodo
  • Rino A. Gani
  • C. Rinaldi Lesmana
  • Terawan Agus Putranto
  • Yun Fan Liaw
  • Shiv Kumar Sarin



The Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) convened an international working party on the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in December 2008 to develop consensus recommendations.


The working party consisted of expert hepatologist, hepatobiliary surgeon, radiologist, and oncologist from Asian-Pacific region, who were requested to make drafts prior to the consensus meeting held at Bali, Indonesia on 4 December 2008. The quality of existing evidence and strength of recommendations were ranked from 1 (highest) to 5 (lowest) and from A (strongest) to D (weakest), respectively, according to the Oxford system of evidence-based approach for developing the consensus statements.


Participants of the consensus meeting assessed the quality of cited studies and assigned grades to the recommendation statements. Finalized recommendations were presented at the fourth APASL single topic conference on viral-related HCC at Bali, Indonesia and approved by the participants of the conference.


Hepatocellular carcinoma Consensus statements Recommendations Epidemiology Diagnosis Treatment algorithm 



American Association for Study of Liver Diseases




Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP


Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver


Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group


Confidence interval


Contrast-enhanced US


Colony-stimulating factor 1


CT during arterial portography


CT hepatic arteriography




Dysplastic nodule


European Association for the study of the liver


Focal nodular hyperplasia


Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid




Hepatitis B e antigen


Hepatitis B surface antigen


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hepatitis C virus


High-grade dysplastic nodules


Hereditary hemochromatosis






Low-grade dysplastic nodules


Positive likelihood ratio


Multidetector-row CT


Molecular targeted therapy


Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis


Platelet-derived growth factor receptors


Prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II


Randomized controlled trial


Risk difference


Superparamagnetic iron oxide


Transarterial chemoembolization




Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors


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Copyright information

© Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masao Omata
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laurentius A. Lesmana
    • 2
  • Ryosuke Tateishi
    • 1
  • Pei-Jer Chen
    • 3
  • Shi-Ming Lin
    • 4
  • Haruhiko Yoshida
    • 1
  • Masatoshi Kudo
    • 5
  • Jeong Min Lee
    • 6
  • Byung Ihn Choi
    • 6
  • Ronnie T. P. Poon
    • 7
  • Shuichiro Shiina
    • 1
  • Ann Lii Cheng
    • 8
  • Ji-Dong Jia
    • 9
  • Shuntaro Obi
    • 10
  • Kwang Hyub Han
    • 11
  • Wasim Jafri
    • 12
  • Pierce Chow
    • 13
  • Seng Gee Lim
    • 14
  • Yogesh K. Chawla
    • 15
  • Unggul Budihusodo
    • 2
  • Rino A. Gani
    • 16
  • C. Rinaldi Lesmana
    • 2
  • Terawan Agus Putranto
    • 17
  • Yun Fan Liaw
    • 4
  • Shiv Kumar Sarin
    • 18
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of MedicineUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of IndonesiaJakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine, College of MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Liver Research UnitChang Gung Memorial HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal MedicineKinki University School of MedicineOsaka-SayamaJapan
  6. 6.Abdominal Radiology Section, Department of RadiologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulKorea
  7. 7.Department of SurgeryQueen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  8. 8.Department of Oncology, College of MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  9. 9.Liver Research CenterBeijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  10. 10.Division of HepatologyKyoundo HospitalTokyoJapan
  11. 11.Department of Internal MedicineInstitute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  12. 12.Department of MedicineThe Aga Khan University HospitalKarachiPakistan
  13. 13.Department of General SurgerySingapore General HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  14. 14.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyNational University HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  15. 15.Departments of HepatologyPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  16. 16.Hepatology Division, Internal Medicine Department, RSUPN Cipto MangunkusumoJakartaIndonesia
  17. 17.Department of RadiologyCentral Army HospitalJakartaIndonesia
  18. 18.Department of GastroenterologyG. B. Pant Hospital, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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