Prevalence of hearing impairment amongst school going children in the rural field practice area of the institution

  • Saurabh Kumar
  • Anita AramaniEmail author
  • Minton Mathew
  • Mahesh Bhat
  • Vinay V. Rao
Original Article


Worldwide, over 275 million people are estimated to have moderate to profound hearing loss in both ears. Children with hearing impairment often experience delayed development of speech and cognitive skills, which may result in slower learning and difficulty in progressing at school. Adequate hearing is one of the main factors for good psychosocial development, by which individuals may express their thoughts, feelings, and wishes, and acquire life experience and knowledge. Therefore, hearing impairment needs to be diagnosed early for prompt therapy. Primary objectives of this study was to know prevalence of hearing impairment amongst primary school children and secondary objective was to identify the common causes of hearing impairment amongst primary school children. The cross sectional study was conducted in the government and private schools of our rural field practice area in 2013–2014 for the duration of 4 months from November 2013 to February 2014. Prevalence of Hearing loss was 8.8%. Most common cause of Hearing loss was Impacted wax and Retracted Tympanic membrane. Otological conditions-Wax followed by otitis media with effusion and chronic suppurative otitis media were the common ear problems found in our study.


Hearing loss Retracted tympanic membrane Chronic otitis media Ear wax Conductive hearing loss 



I am Grateful to Dr. Preeti, Dr. Vineeta, Dr. Lakshmi for their help in data gathering.


  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Face to face with hearing impairment. Available from: Accessed 17 June 2017
  2. 2.
    Byrne DC, Themann CL, Meinke DK, Morata TC, Stephenson MR (2012) Promoting hearing loss prevention in audiology practice. Perspect Pub Health Issues Relat Hearing Balance 13(1):3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eisenberg LS, Johnson KC, Martinez AS, Dumont VL, Ganguly DH, Still JF (2012) Studies in pediatric hearing loss at the House Research Institute. J Am Acad Audiol 23(6):412–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Islam MA, Islam MS, Sattar MA, Ali MI (2012) Prevalence and pattern of hearing loss. Med Today 23(1):18–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sekhar DL, Zalewski TR, Paul IM (2013) Variability of state school-based hearing screening protocols in the United States. J Commun Health 38(3):569–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Muller R, Fleischer G, Schneider J (2012) Pure-tone auditory threshold in school children. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 269(1):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Musiek FE, Rintelmann WF (2001) Current perspectives in auditory evaluation. Manole, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chundathodi A, John HGM (2016) Prevalence of hearing impairment in a rural primary school in Kerala. J Evid Based Med Healthc 3(74):4018–4020. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gell FM, White E, McNewell K, Mackenzie I, Smith A, Thompson S et al (1992) Practical screening priorities for hearing impairment among children in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 70:645–655Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shrestha R, Baral K, Neil W (2001) Community ear care delivery by community ear assistants and volunteers: a pilot study. J Laryngol Otol 115:869–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ebenezer RR (2014) Spectrum of ENT diseases among urban school children in South Kerala, India. Int J Biomed Res 5:355–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sapra G, Srivastava SP, Modwal A, Saboo R, Saxena G, Gyanu J (2015) Hearing assessment of school going children of various schools in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Sch J Appl Med Sci 3(2B):638–645Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Norman P, Chandran M, Pandiyan K, Selvaraj K (2017) The factors associated with hearing impairment in school children. Int J Community Med Public Health 4:200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haddad J (2004) Hearing loss. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson BH (eds) Nelson textbook of paediatrics, 17th edn. W.B Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 2129–2135Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ologe FE, Ernest SK (2002) Screening audiometry in a private primary school in Ilorin. Niger J Paediatr 29:96Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nogueria JCR, Mendonca MC (2011) Assessment of hearing in a municipal public school student population. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 77(6):716–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vieira ABC, Macedo LR, Gonçalves DU (2007) The diagnosis of loss hearing loss in childhood. Pediatrics 29(1):43–49Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thakur SK, Singh SK, Mahato B, Singh A, Mahato D (2015) Pattern of otological diseases in school-going children of the Sunsari district of Eastern Nepal. Internet J Otorhinolaryngol. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Adhikari P, Kharel B, Ma J, Baral D, Pandey T (2008) Pattern of otological diseases in school-going children of Katmandu valley. Int Archiv Otorhinolaryngol 12(4):502–505Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Teele D, Klein Rosner JB (1980) Epidemiology of otitis media in children. Ann Otorhinol 89:5–6Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chibanga RKH, Aswani J, Kipingor M, Lukwasa N (2016) Prevalence of hearing loss in primary school children in Central Zone of Lusaka-Zambia[dissertation] University of Nairobi. Accessed 17 June 2017

Copyright information

© Association of Otolaryngologists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community MedicineFather Muller Medical CollegeMangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck SurgeryFather Muller Medical College HospitalMangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Specsavers Hearing Care LimitedCowley, OxfordUK
  4. 4.Department of Speech and HearingFather Muller College of Speech and HearingMangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations