An Immunohistochemical Study of HIF-1 Alpha in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
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To evaluate and compare the expression of HIF-1 Alpha (HIF-1α) in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and various grades of Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 30 cases each of OEDand OSCC were stained with HIF-1α antibody. Quantification of HIF-1α positive cellswas carried out and the data was statistically analysed. The mean % HIF-1α labeling index (HIF-1α LI) increased significantly from mild OED (32.11%), moderate OED (55.07%), to severe OED (64.58%). There was a statistically significant increase in the expression of HIF-1α as grades of OED increased. The mean HIF-1α LI % in well differentiated OSCC was 46.3%, Moderately differentiated OSCC—76.31% and Poorly differentiated OSCC—89.9%. The mean HIF-1α LI was found to increase with increasing grades of OSCC which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Further a comparison of mean HIF-1α LI in OED with different histologic grades of OSCC by Independent samples t test was performed. We found statistically significant difference between OED and moderately differentiated OSCC and OED and poorly differentiated OSCC (P = 0.000). Progressive increase in expression of HIF-1α was noted from OED to OSCC. It can be postulated that epithelial dysplastic lesions with increased HIF-1α expression are at greater risk of malignant transformation, suggesting that the expression of HIF-1α is an early event in oral carcinogenesis.
KeywordsHIF-1α Oral epithelial dysplasia OSCC Immunohistochemistry
The present study was not funded by any agency, it was self funded and there was no conflict of interest between authors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
An Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee. All procedure performed on human participant were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Ethical Committee.
Informed consent from patients was obtained prior to examination.
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