The mobile phone is a ubiquitous piece in this modern world. An estimated 85% of Americans, 80% of the British, and perhaps 75% of Indians use it, as of today. Mobile phones communicate by transmitting radio waves through a network of fixed antennas called base stations. Radio frequency waves are electromagnetic fields, and unlike ionizing radiation such as X-rays or gamma rays, can neither break chemical bonds nor cause ionization in the human body. 1000 participants from outpatient department of a tertiary care center over a period of one and a half years, were included in the study and were divided equally into case (> 1 year use) and control (< 1 year use) groups. Out of 500 cases, maximum 233(46.6%) subjects were using mobile since last 4–6 year and 134(26.8%) were using mobile since last 7–9 year and maximum 344(68.8%) subjects were using mobile 1–3 h/day and 145(29.0%) were using mobile 4–6 h/day.
Hours of exposure Mobile phone Sensorineural hearing loss Years of exposure SAR
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Shalini Jadia, Sadat Qureshi, Leena Jain, Mritunjay Shringirishi declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) (2009) Statement on the “guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagetic fields (up to 300 GHz)”Google Scholar
Frey AH (1998) Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the implications? Environ Health Perspect 106(3):101–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oftedal G, Wilen J, Sandstrom M, Mild KH (2005) Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use. Occup Med (Lond) 50(4):237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fritze K, Sommer C, Schmitz B et al (1997) Effect of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in rat. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 94(5):465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braune S, Wrocklage C, Raczek J, Gailus T, Lucking CH (1998) Resting blood pressure increase during exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field. Lancet 351(9119):1857–1858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borbely AA, Huber R, Graf T, Fuchs B, Gallmann E, Achermann P (1999) Pulsed high- frequency electromagnetic fields affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram. Neurosci Lett 275(3):207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preece AW, Iwi G, Davies-Smith A et al (1999) Effect of a 915-MHz simulated signal on cognitive function in man. Int J Radiat Biol 75(4):447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Repacholi MH, Basten A, Gebski V, Noonan D, Finnie J, Harris AW (1997) Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 147:631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moulder JE, Erdreich LS, Malyapa RS, Merritt J, Pickard WF, Vijayalaxmi (1999) Cell phones and cancer: what is the evidence for a connection? Radiat Res 151:513–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watanabe Y, Tanaka T, Taki M, Watnabe S (2000) FDTD analysis of microwave hearing effect. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 48:2126–2132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balbani APS, Montovani JC (2008) Mobile phones: influence on auditory and vestibular systems. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 74(1):125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population. Saudi Med J 25:732–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
Panda NK, Jain R, Bakshi J, Munjal S (2007) Audiological disturbances in long-term mobile phone users. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 137:131–132Google Scholar
GarcíaCallejo FJ, GarcíaCallejo F, Peña Santamaría J, Alonso Castañeira I, Sebastián Gil E, Marco Algarra J (2005) Hearing level and intensive use of mobile phones. Acta Otorinolaringol Esp 56:187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar