Histomorphometric Study to Compare Histological Changes Between Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Apparently Normal Adjacent Oral Mucosa
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Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey’s post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization.
KeywordsOral squamous cell carcinoma Apparently normal mucosa 1 cm away from squamous cell carcinoma Normal oral mucosa Histomorphometry
I am thankful to Dr. R. B. Patil Director and Dr Hallikerimath Oral oncologist Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute Navnagar Hubli. Late Dr. Sandeep Madhwapati Belgaum Cancer Hospital, Dr. Ravi Chikkodi, General pathologist. Anjaneya Laboratory for providing me samples. Special thanks to Mr. Mallapur for helping me frame the required statistical analysis for this study. Dr. Punnya V Angadi, Reader Deptartment of Oral Pathology, KLE’s VK Institute of dental sciences, Belgaum for helping and encouraging for conduct of the study.
Conflict of interest
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